Indo-European Migrations from Black Sea homeland

            Chariot technology

      Hittite Tribesmen settle in Asia Minor (Anatolia, Turkey) –3M

            Loose tribal confederation

      Other non-Hittites in the area


Early Period

-1900>-1650 Unification and sedentarization of IE Hittite tribes

      chieftain Anittas, c 1850 BC, was prominent in the domination of central Anatolia

            Hatti = name for region and capital from which came the name Hittite.



Old Kingdom


17th Century

Rise of dynastic kingship over a tribal confederation


Labarna, c1680-1650 [Bryce, 66-72]

      first king

      extended domination to the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts.


Hattusilis I c1650-1620 [Bryce, 72-87, 88-89]

conquered Hattusas and made it the capital

campaigns in N Syria

     c1623, siege of Urshu (Warsuwa) {1623} [Bryce, 77-78; AANE 73]

     read passage, 77-78

indecisive war with Aleppo

Arzawa campaign


Mursilis, c1620-1590 [Bryce, 101-105]

      Continues Hittite expansion outside Anatolia

      c1597, Conquest of Aleppo (Yamkhad)

      raided the Hurrians in Syria

      looted the Amorite capital Babylon in 1595 [Bryce 102-105; AANE 73]

      Murdered in palace coup, Hittites collapse



Intermediate Period, 1590-1400


16th century

The assassination of Mursilis

      civil war and near anarchy during much of the 16th century BC.

      The western and southern coasts were lost in rebellions.

      Barbarians from the Black Sea mountains

      fortifying Hattusas.

      The Hurrians regained control of areas in the east and south.


New powers arise in Mesopotamia





Telpinus, c1525-1500, briefly restored central authority and established a strengthened hereditary monarchy.


15th century

      new Hittite kingdom consolidated its hold over much of Asia Minor.

      Ambitions in Syria were blocked by Egypt, to which tribute was paid.


Thutmoses III of Egypt and Mitanni struggle for control of Syria

      mid -15C


Decline of Egyptian military power after Thutmoses III

Rise of Mitanni under Saushtatar I

      Sack of Assur

      Conquest of N Syria

      Alliance with Kadesh

      Domination of N Syria

      Alliance with Egypt (daughters of Mitanni in pharaoh’s harem)


Hittite New Kingdom, c. 1400-1200


Rise of Mitanni in Syria


Tudhaliya I/II, 1400-1380 [Bryce, 131-154]

      Restores power in W Anatolia

            Arzawa campaign [Bryce, 135-137; AANE 79]

            Mudduwatta campaigns [Bryce, 140-149; AANE 79]


Suppiluliuma I, 1344-1322 [Bryce, 168-205]

      Seizes the throne in a coup

      took advantage of Egypt's weakness in the time of Akhenaton, advanced in Syria

      1339, Defeat of Mitanni, sack capital of Wassuganni

            Sattiwaza established as vassal in rump state

                  Overthrown by coup

                  c1335, Reestablished by Hittites at battle of Irrite [Bryce, 199-200; AANE 75]

            rise of Assyria into vacuum in northern Mesopotamia

      conquest of northern Syria

            except Carchemish

      conquest of Qadesh

      alliance with Ugarit (sea power)

      rise of the Habiru of Amurru

            become independent of Egypt under Abdi-Asirta and his son Aziru

            switch side to Hittites

      crisis in Egypt

            offer of Tutankhamun’s wife to marry son of Suppiluliuma [Bryce 193-199]

      siege and conquest of Carchemish by storm [Bryce, 192]

      Hittites now control all of northern Syria


Mursili II {1321-1295} [Bryce, 206-240]

      Age of consolidation

      Subdues Kaska tribes (repeated raids)

      Conquers western Anatolia [AANE 76]

            Arzawa conquered; siege of Astarpa [Bryce, 210-211; AANE 76]

            Read quotes on pp. 210-211

            Seha River Land [212-213


      Achaean contacts     

      Second Kaska campaign {1316-1315} [Bryce, 234-235; AANE 77]

      Rebellion in Syria subdued {1314}

            Renewed Egyptian intervention

      Plague, palace coup (step-mother = Babylonian princess), stroke



Muwatalli II {1295-1272} [Bryce, 240-267]

      Rise of 19th Dynasty

            Horemheb, Seti I campaign in Syria

      Battle of Qadesh, 1275 [Bryce, 255-262; AANE 77]

      War continues for another decade


Weak rule by Urhi-Tesub {1272-1267} [Bryce, 268-291]

      Young and sick

      Egypt makes minor advances in Syria

      Assyrians arise in northern Mesopotamia

            Fall of Hittite ally kingdom of Hanigalbat (Mittani successor) [Bryce, 280-284; AANE 78]

      Coup by brother Hattusili


Hattusili III {1267-1237} [Bryce, 292-325]

      Rules by diplomacy

      Treaty with Ramses of Egypt {1259} [Bryce, 302-309]

            Hittite control over most of Syria was confirmed

            Daughter marries Ramses

      Occupied with revolt of Piyamaradu in SW Anatolia


Tudhaliya IV {1237-1209} [Bryce, 326-360]

      Lukka wars


      Rise of Ahhiyawa (Achaeans)

            Ally with west Anatolian vassals of Hittites

            Raid west Anatolian coast line

            Tudhaliya campaigns and restores power

                  Milawata (Miletos)

                  Wilusa (Wilion/Ilium = Troy)

            Competition for control of trade in E Mediterranean

            Capture of Cyprus with Ugaritic fleet


      Assyria wars

            Assyrians use fall of Mitanni to advance into NW Mesopotamia

            Tukulti-Ninurtu plans to cross the river

            War in Nihriya (mts. N of Mesopotamia)

                  Hittite allies/vassals

                  Hittites come to assist

            1225, Assyrian victory at the battle of Nihriya

            Assyrian raids across the Euphrates

            1223, Assyrians turn attention to conquest of Babylon     



Suppiluliuma II {1207-1200} [Bryce, 361-381]

      last recorded king

      Campaigns in the West

      Naval campaign to Cyprus


      Sack of Hattusa, c. 1200 BC

            was looted and burned, probably by Gaska mountain tribes

            Possible indications of internal rebellion

      barbarian invasions and new waves of Indo-Europeans (Phrygians, Greeks, etc.).

      Sea Peoples

      The fall of Troy



      Some Hittites elites reestablished themselves in northern Syria

      where they ruled over several Hurrian-Aramaean city-states

      Absorbed by Arameans and by the Assyrians in the 9th century

      Hittites mentioned in the Bible