Extracts from accession speech to Parliament, 19 March 1603

I do acknowledge, that the special and greatest point of difference that is between a rightful king and an usurping tyrant is in this: That whereas the proud and ambitious tyrant does think his kingdom and people are only ordained for satisfaction of his desires and unreasonable appetites; The righteous and just king does by the contrary acknowledge himself to be ordained for the procuring of the wealth and prosperity of his people, and that his greatest and principal worldly felicity must consist in their prosperity. If you be rich I cannot be poor: if you be happy I cannot but be fortunate: and I protest that your welfare shall ever be my greatest care and contentment: and that I am a servant it is most true, that as I am Head and Governor of all the people in my Dominion who are my natural vassals and subjects, considering them in numbers and distinct ranks; So if we will take the whole people as one body and mass, then as the head is ordained for the body, and not the body for the head; so must a righteous king know himself to be ordained for his people, and not his people for him.


In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, etc.

Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern Parts of Virginia; do by these Presents, solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one of another, convenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid; And by Virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the General good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due Submission and Obedience.

In Witness whereof we have hereunto subscibed our names at Cape Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord, King James of England, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini, 1620.

Oliver Cromwell:
Letter to his Brother-in-Law after the Battle of Marston Moor, 1644

To my loving Brother,

...Truly England and the Church of God hath had a great favour from the Lord, in this great victory given unto us, such as the like never was since this war began.

It had all the evidences of an absolute victory obtained by the Lord's blessing upon the Godly Party principally. We never charged but we routed the enemy. The Left Wing, which I commanded, being our own horse, saving a few Scots in our rear, beat all the Prince's horse. God made them as stubble to our swords. We charged their regiments of foot with our horse, and routed all we charged. The particulars I cannot relate now; but I believe, of twenty thousand the Prince hath not four thousand left. Give glory, all the glory, to God.

Sir, God hath taken away your eldest son by a cannon-shot. It brake his leg. We were necessitated to have it cut off, whereof he died.

Sir, you know my own trials this way [Cromwell's son had been killed recently]: but the Lord supported me with this, That the Lord took him into the happiness we all pant for and live for. There is your precious child full of glory, never to know sin or sorrow any more. He was a gallant young man, exceedingly gracious. God give you His comfort. Before his death he was so full of comfort that to Frank Russel and myself he could not express it, 'It was so great above his pain.'This he said to us. Indeed it was admirable. A little after, he said, One thing lay upon his spirit. I asked him, What that was? he told me it was, That God had not suffered him to be any more the executioner of His enemies. At his fall, his horse being killed with the bullet, and as I am informed three horses more, I am told he bid them, Open to the right and left, that he might see the rogues run. Truly he was exceedingly beloved in the Army, of all that knew him. But few knew him; for he was a precious young man, fit for God. You have cause to bless the Lord. He is a glorious Saint in Heaven; wherein you ought exceedingly to rejoice. Let this drink up your sorrow; seeing these are not feigned words to comfort you, but the thing is real and undoubted a truth. You may do all things by the strength of Christ. Seek that, and you shall easily bear your trial. Let this public mercy to the Church of God make you to forget your private sorrow. The Lord be your strength: so prays

Your truly faithful and loving brother,


THE AREOPAGITICA by John Milton (1608-1674)

appeared on November 24, 1644

It is a plea for the right to print and publish without censorship; response to the Parliament's ordinance requiring government permission for publications. After being
renewed several times for terms of years, the restrictions finally were allowed to lapse in 1694, and later attempts to renew them were unsuccessful.

Foolish tongues! When God gave him reason, he gave him freedom to choose, for reason is but choosing; he had been else a mere artificial Adam, such an Adam as he is in the motions. We ourselves esteem not of that obedience, or love, or gift, which is of force: God therefore left him free, set before him a provoking object ever almost in his eyes; herein consisted his merit, herein the right of his reward, the praise of his abstinence. Wherefore did he create passions within us, pleasures round about us, but that these rightly tempered are the very ingredients of virtue? They are not skilful considerers of human things, who imagine to remove sin by removing the matter of sin; for, besides that it is a huge heap increasing under the very act of diminishing, though some part of it may for a time be withdrawn from some persons, it cannot from all, in such a universal thing as books are; and when this is done, yet the sin remain entire. Though ye take from a covetous man all his treasure, he has yet one jewel left: ye cannot bereave him of his covetousness. Banish all objects of lust, shut up all youth into the severest discipline that can be exercised in any hermitage, ye cannot make them chaste that came not thither so: such great care and wisdom is required to the right managing of this point.


Where there is much desire to learn, there of necessity will be much arguing, much writing, many opinions; for opinion in good men is but knowledge in the making.
Under these fantastic terrors of sect and schism, we wrong the earnest and zealous thirst after knowledge and understanding which God hath stirred up in this city.
What some lament of, we rather should rejoice at, should rather praise this pious forwardness among men, to reassume the illdeputed care of their religion into their own hands again. A little generous prudence, a little forbearance of one another, and some grain of charity might win all these diligences to join and unite in one general and brotherly search after truth, could we but forego this prelatical tradition of crowding free consciences and Christian liberties into canons and precepts of men.


Good and evil we know in the field of this world grow up together almost inseparably; and the knowledge of good is so involved and interwoven with the knowledge of evil, and in so many cunning resemblances hardly to be discerned, that those confused seeds which were imposed upon Psyche as an incessant labour to cull out and sort asunder, were not more intermixed. It was from out the rind of one apple tasted that the knowledge of good and evil, as two twins cleaving together, leaped forth into the world. And perhaps this is that doom which Adam fell into of knowing good and evil, that is to say of knowing good by evil.


And how can a man teach with authority, which is the life of teaching, how can he be a doctor in his book as he ought to be, or else had better be silent, whenas all he teaches, all he delivers, is but under the tuition, under the correction of his patriarchal licenser, to blot or alter what precisely accords not with the hidebound humour which he calls his judgment? -- when every acute reader, upon the first sight of a pedantic license, will be ready with these like words to ding the book a quoit's distance from him: "I hate a pupil teacher; I endure not an instructor that comes to me under the wardship of an overseeing fist. I know nothing of the licenser, but that I have his own hand here for his arrogance; who shall warrant me his judgment?" "The State, sir," replies the stationer, but has a quick return: "The State shall be my governors, but not my critics; they may be mistaken in the choice of a licenser, as easily as this licenser may be mistaken in an author; this is some common stuff." And he might add from Sir Francis Bacon, that "Such authorized books are but the language of the times." For though a licenser should happen to be judicious more than ordinary, which will be a great jeopardy of the next succession, yet his very office and his commission enjoins him to let pass nothing but what is vulgarly received already.


For if they fell upon one kind of strictness, unless their care were equal to regulate all other things of like aptness to corrupt the mind, that single endeavour they knew
would be but a fond labour: to shut and fortify one gate against corruption, and be necessitated to leave others round about wide open. If we think to regulate printing, thereby to rectify manners, we must regulate all recreations and pastimes, all that is delightful to man. No music must be heard, no song be set or sung, but what is grave and Doric. There must be licensing of dancers, that no gesture, motion, or deportment be taught our youth, but what by their allowance shall be thought honest; for such Plato was provided of. It will ask more than the work of twenty licensers to examine all the lutes, the violins, and the guitars in every house; they must not be suffered to prattle as they do, but must be licensed what they may say. And who shall silence all the airs and madrigals that whisper softness in chambers? The windows also, and the balconies, must be thought on; there are shrewd books, with dangerous frontispieces, set to sale: who shall prohibit them, shall twenty licensers? The villages also must have their visitors to inquire what lectures the bagpipe and the rebec reads, even to the balladry and the gamut of every municipal fiddler, for these are the countryman's Arcadias and his Monte Mayors.


Truth is compared in Scripture to a streaming fountain; if her waters flow not in a perpetual progression, they sicken into a muddy pool of conformity and tradition. A man may be a heretic in the truth; and if he believe things only because his pastor says so, or the Assembly so determines, without knowing other reason, though his belief be true, yet the very truth he holds, becomes his heresy. There is not any burden that some would gladder post off to another, than the charge and care of their religion. There be, who knows not that there be of Protestants and professors who live and die in as errant and implicit faith, as any lay Papist or Loretto. A wealthy man addicted to his pleasure and to his profits, find religion to be a traffic so entangled, and of so many piddling accounts, that of all mysteries he can not skill to keep a stock going upon that trade. What should he do? fain he woud have the name to be religious, fain he would bear up with his neighbors in that. What does he therefore, but resolves to give over toiling, and to find himself out some factor, to whose care and credit he may commit the whole managing of his religious affairs...


And as for regulating the press, let no man think to have the honour of advising ye better than yourselves have done in that Order published next before this, "that no book be printed, unless the printer's and the author's name, or at least the printer's, be registered." Those which otherwise come forth, if they be found mischievous and libellous, the fire and the executioner will be the timeliest and the most effectual remedy that man's prevention can use.


Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651)


NATURE hath made men so equal in the faculties of body and mind as that, though there be found one man sometimes manifestly stronger in body or of quicker
mind than another, yet when all is reckoned together the difference between man and man is not so considerable as that one man can thereupon claim to himself any
benefit to which another may not pretend as well as he. For as to the strength of body, the weakest has strength enough to kill the strongest, either by secret machination or by confederacy with others that are in the same danger with himself.

And as to the faculties of the mind, setting aside the arts grounded upon words, and especially that skill of proceeding upon general and infallible rules, called science, which very few have and but in few things, as being not a native faculty born with us, nor attained, as prudence, while we look after somewhat else, I find yet a greater equality amongst men than that of strength. For prudence is but experience, which equal time equally bestows on all men in those things they equally apply themselves unto. That which may perhaps make such equality incredible is but a vain conceit of one's own wisdom, which almost all men think they have in a greater degree than the vulgar; that is, than all men but themselves, and a few others, whom by fame, or for concurring with themselves, they approve. For such is the nature of men that howsoever they may acknowledge many others to be more witty, or more eloquent or more learned, yet they will hardly believe there be many so wise as themselves; for they see their own wit at hand, and other men's at a distance. But this proveth rather that men are in that point equal, than unequal. For there is not ordinarily a greater sign of the equal distribution of anything than that every man is contented with his share.

From this equality of ability ariseth equality of hope in the attaining of our ends. And therefore if any two men desire the same thing, which nevertheless they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies; and in the way to their end (which is principally their own conservation, and sometimes their delectation only) endeavour to destroy or subdue one another. And from hence it comes to pass that where an invader hath no more to fear than another man's single power, if one plant, sow, build, or possess a convenient seat, others may probably be expected to come prepared with forces united to dispossess and deprive him, not only of the fruit of his labour, but also of his life or liberty. And the invader again is in the like danger of another.

And from this diffidence of one another, there is no way for any man to secure himself so reasonable as anticipation; that is, by force, or wiles, to master the persons of all men he can so long till he see no other power great enough to endanger him: and this is no more than his own conservation requireth, and is generally allowed. Also, because there be some that, taking pleasure in contemplating their own power in the acts of conquest, which they pursue farther than their security requires, if others, that otherwise would be glad to be at ease within modest bounds, should not by invasion increase their power, they would not be able, long time, by standing only on their defence, to subsist. And by consequence, such augmentation of dominion over men being necessary to a man's conservation, it ought to be allowed him.

Again, men have no pleasure (but on the contrary a great deal of grief) in keeping company where there is no power able to overawe them all. For every man
looketh that his companion should value him at the same rate he sets upon himself, and upon all signs of contempt or undervaluing naturally endeavours, as far as he
dares (which amongst them that have no common power to keep them in quiet is far enough to make them destroy each other), to extort a greater value from his
contemners, by damage; and from others, by the example.

So that in the nature of man, we find three principal causes of quarrel. First, competition; secondly, diffidence; thirdly, glory.

The first maketh men invade for gain; the second, for safety; and the third, for reputation. The first use violence, to make themselves masters of other men's
persons, wives, children, and cattle; the second, to defend them; the third, for trifles, as a word, a smile, a different opinion, and any other sign of undervalue, either direct in their persons or by reflection in their kindred, their friends, their nation, their profession, or their name.

Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war
as is of every man against every man. For war consisteth not in battle only, or the act of fighting, but in a tract of time, wherein the will to contend by battle is sufficiently known: and therefore the notion of time is to be considered in the nature of war, as it is in the nature of weather. For as the nature of foul weather lieth not in a shower or two of rain, but in an inclination thereto of many days together: so the nature of war consisteth not in actual fighting, but in the known disposition thereto during all the time there is no assurance to the contrary. All other time is peace.

Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of war, where every man is enemy to every man, the same consequent to the time wherein men live without other security than what their own strength and their own invention shall furnish them withal. In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.

The First English Coffee-Houses, c. 1670-1675

The Character of a Coffee-House, 1673 A.D.:

A coffee-house is a lay conventicle, good-fellowship turned puritan, ill-husbandry in masquerade, whither people come, after toping all day, to purchase, at the expense of their last penny, the repute of sober companions: A Rota [i.e., club room], that, like Noah's ark, receives animals of every sort, from the precise diminutive band, to the hectoring cravat and cuffs in folio; a nursery for training up the smaller fry of virtuosi in confident tattling, or a cabal of kittling [i.e., carping] critics that have only learned to spit and mew; a mint of intelligence, that, to make each man his pennyworth, draws out into petty parcels, what the merchant receives in bullion: he, that comes often, saves twopence a week in Gazettes, and has his news and his coffee for the same charge, as at a threepenny ordinary they give in broth to your chop of mutton; it is an exchange, where haberdashers of political small-wares meet, and mutually abuse each other, and the public, with bottomless stories, and heedless notions; the rendezvous of idle pamphlets, and persons more idly employed to read them; a high court of justice, where every little fellow in a camlet cloak takes upon him to transpose affairs both in church and state, to show reasons against acts of parliament, and condemn the decrees of general councils.

As you have a hodge-podge of drinks, such too is your company, for each man seems a leveler, and ranks and files himself as he lists, without regard to degrees or order; so that often you may see a silly fop and a worshipful justice, a griping rook and a grave citizen, a worthy lawyer and an errant pickpocket, a reverend non-conformist and a canting mountebank, all blended together to compose a medley of impertinence.

If any pragmatic, to show himself witty or eloquent, begin to talk high, presently the further tables are abandoned, and all the rest flock round (like smaller birds, to admire the gravity of the madge-howlet [i.e., the barn-owl]). They listen to him awhile with their mouths, and let their pipes go out, and coffee grow cold, for pure zeal of attention, but on the sudden fall all a yelping at once with more noise, but not half so much harmony, as a pack of beagles on the full cry. To still this bawling, up starts Capt. All-man-sir, the man of mouth, with a face as blustering as that of Æolus and his four sons, in painting, and a voice louder than the speaking trumpet, he begins you the story of a sea-fight; and though he never were further, by water, than the Bear-garden. . . . yet, having pirated the names of ships and captains, he persuades you himself was present, and performed miracles; that he waded knee-deep in blood on the upper-deck, and never thought to serenade his mistress so pleasant as the bullets whistling; how he stopped a vice-admiral of the enemy's under full sail; till she was boarded, with his single arm, instead of grappling-irons, and puffed out with his breath a fire-ship that fell foul on them. All this he relates, sitting in a cloud of smoke, and belching so many common oaths to vouch it, you can scarce guess whether the real engagement, or his romancing account of it, be the more dreadful: however, he concludes with railing at the conduct of some eminent officers (that, perhaps, he never saw), and protests, had they taken his advice at the council of war, not a sail had escaped us.

He is no sooner out of breath, but another begins a lecture on the Gazette, where, finding several prizes taken, he gravely observes, if this trade hold, we shall quickly rout the Dutch, horse and foot, by sea: he nicknames the Polish gentlemen wherever he meets them, and enquires whether Gayland and Taffaletta be Lutherans or Calvinists? stilo novo he interprets a vast new stile, or turnpike, erected by his electoral highness on the borders of Westphalia, to keep Monsieur Turenne's cavalry from falling on his retreating troops; he takes words by the sound, without examining their sense: Morea he believes to be the country of the Moors, and Hungary a place where famine always keeps her court, nor is there anything more certain, than that he made a whole room full of fops, as wise as himself, spend above two hours in searching the map for Aristocracy and Democracy, not doubting but to have found them there, as well as Dalmatia and Croatia.

Coffee-Houses Vindicated, 1675 A.D.:

Though the happy Arabia, nature's spicery, prodigally furnishes the voluptuous world with all kinds of aromatics, and divers other rarities; yet I scarce know whether mankind be not still as much obliged to it for the excellent fruit of the humble coffee-shrub, as for any other of its more specious productions: for, since there is nothing we here enjoy, next to life, valuable beyond health, certainly those things that contribute to preserve us in good plight and eucrasy (such a due mixture of qualities as constitutes health), and fortify our weak bodies against the continual assaults and batteries of disease, deserve our regards much more than those which only gratify a liquorish palate, or otherwise prove subservient to our delights. As for this salutiferous berry, of so general a use through all the regions of the east, it is sufficiently known, when prepared, to be moderately hot, and of a very drying attenuating and cleansing quality; whence reason infers, that its decoction must contain many good physical properties, and cannot but be an incomparable remedy to dissolve crudities, comfort the brain, and dry up ill humors in the stomach. In brief, to prevent or redress, in those that frequently drink it, all cold drowsy rheumatic distempers whatsoever, that proceed from excess of moisture, which are so numerous, that but to name them would tire the tongue of a mountebank.

Lastly, for diversion. It is older than Aristotle, and will be true, when Hobbes is forgot, that man is a sociable creature, and delights in company. Now, whither shall a person, wearied with hard study, or the laborious turmoils of a tedious day, repair to refresh himself? Or where can young gentlemen, or shop-keepers, more innocently and advantageously spend an hour or two in the evening, than at a coffee-house? Where they shall be sure to meet company, and, by the custom of the house, not such as at other places, stingy and reserved to themselves, but free and communicative; where every man may modestly begin his story, and propose to, or answer another, as he thinks fit. Discourse is pabulum animi, cos ingenii; the mind's best diet, and the great whetstone and incentive of ingenuity; by that we come to know men better than by their physiognomy. Loquere, ut te videam, speak, that I may see you, was the philosopher's adage. To read men is acknowledged more useful than books; but where is there a better library for that study, generally, than here, amongst such a variety of humors, all expressing themselves on divers subjects, according to their respective abilities?

In brief, it is undeniable, that, as you have here the most civil, so it is, generally, the most intelligent society; the frequenting whose converse, and observing their discourses and deportment, cannot but civilize our manners, enlarge our understandings, refine our language, teach us a generous confidence and handsome mode of address, and brush off that pudor rubrusticus (as, I remember, Tully somewhere calls it), that clownish kind of modesty frequently incident to the best natures, which renders them sheepish and ridiculous in company.

So that, upon the whole matter, spite of the idle sarcasms and paltry reproaches thrown upon it, we may, with no less truth than plainness, give this brief character of a
well-regulated coffee-house (for our pen disdains to be an advocate for any sordid holes, that assume that name to cloak the practice of debauchery), that it is the sanctuary of health, the nursery of temperance, the delight of frugality, an academy of civility, and free-school of ingenuity.

The English Bill of Rights, 1689

Whereas the said late King James II having abdicated the government, and the throne being thereby vacant, his Highness the prince of Orange (whom it hath pleased Almighty God to make the glorious instrument of delivering this kingdom from popery and arbitrary power) did (by the advice of the lords spiritual and temporal, and diverse principal persons of the Commons) cause letters to be written to the lords spiritual and temporal, being Protestants, and other letters to the several counties, cities, universities, boroughs, and Cinque Ports, for the choosing of such persons to represent them, as were of right to be sent to parliament, to meet and sit at Westminster upon the two and twentieth day of January, in this year 1689, in order to such an establishment as that their religion, laws, and liberties might not again be in danger of being subverted; upon which letters elections have been accordingly made.

And thereupon the said lords spiritual and temporal and Commons, pursuant to their respective letters and elections, being new assembled in a full and free representation of this nation, taking into their most serious consideration the best means for attaining the ends aforesaid, do in the first place (as their ancestors in like case have usually done), for the vindication and assertion of their ancient rights and liberties, declare:

1. That the pretended power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by regal authority, without consent of parliament is illegal.

2. That the pretended power of dispensing with the laws, or the execution of law by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal.

3. That the commission for erecting the late court of commissioners for ecclesiastical causes, and all other commissions and courts of like nature, are illegal and pernicious.

4. That levying money for or to the use of the crown by pretense of prerogative, without grant of parliament, for longer time or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal.

5. That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal.

6. That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of parliament, is against law.

7. That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defense suitable to their conditions, and as allowed by law.

8. That election of members of parliament ought to be free.

9. That the freedom of speech, and debates or proceedings in parliament, ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of parliament.

10. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

11. That jurors ought to be duly impaneled and returned, and jurors which pass upon men in trials for high treason ought to be freeholders.

12. That all grants and promises of fines and forfeitures of particular persons before conviction are illegal and void.

13. And that for redress of all grievances, and for the amending, strengthening, and preserving of the laws, parliament ought to be held frequently.

And they do claim, demand, and insist upon all and singular the premises, as their undoubted rights and liberties....

Having therefore an entire confidence that his said Highness the prince of Orange will perfect the deliverance so far advanced by him, and will still preserve them from the violation of their rights, which they have here asserted, and from all other attempt upon their religion, rights, and liberties:

The said lords spiritual and temporal, and commons, assembled at Westminster, do resolve that William and Mary, prince and princess of Orange, be, and be declared, king and queen of England, France, and Ireland....

Upon which their said Majesties did accept the crown and royal dignity of the kingdoms of England, France, and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging, according to the resolution and desire of the said lords and commons contained in the said declaration.

John Locke, A Letter Concerning Toleration (1689)

The toleration of those that differ from others in matters of religion is so agreeable to the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and to the genuine reason of mankind, that it seems monstrous for men to be so blind as not to perceive the necessity and advantage of it in so clear a light. I will not here tax the pride and ambition of some, the passion and uncharitable zeal of others. These are faults from which human affairs can perhaps scarce ever be perfectly freed; but yet such as nobody will bear the plain imputation of, without covering them with some specious colour; and so pretend to commendation, whilst they are carried away by their own irregular passions. But, however, that some may not colour their spirit of persecution and unchristian cruelty with a pretence of care of the public weal and observation of the laws; and that others, under pretence of religion, may not seek impunity for their libertinism and licentiousness; in a word, that none may impose either upon himself or others, by the pretences of loyalty and obedience to the prince, or of tenderness and sincerity in the worship of God; I esteem it above all things necessary to distinguish exactly the business of civil government from that of religion and to settle the just bounds that lie between the one and the other. If this be not done, there can be no end put to the controversies that will be always arising between those that have, or at least pretend to have, on the one side, a concernment for the interest of men's souls, and, on the other side, a care of the commonwealth.

...Now that the whole jurisdiction of the magistrate reaches only to these civil concernments, and that all civil power, right and dominion, is bounded and confined to the only care of promoting these things; and that it neither can nor ought in any manner to be extended to the salvation of souls, these following considerations seem unto me abundantly to demonstrate.

...And such is the nature of the understanding, that it cannot be compelled to the belief of anything by outward force. Confiscation of estate, imprisonment, torments, nothing of that nature can have any such efficacy as to make men change the inward judgment that they have framed of things.

...Let us now consider what a church is. A church, then, I take to be a voluntary society of men, joining themselves together of their own accord in order to the public worshipping of God in such manner as they judge acceptable to Him, and effectual to the salvation of their souls.

I say it is a free and voluntary society. Nobody is born a member of any church; otherwise the religion of parents would descend unto children by the same right of inheritance as their temporal estates, and everyone would hold his faith by the same tenure he does his lands, than which nothing can be imagined more absurd. Thus, therefore, that matter stands. No man by nature is bound unto any particular church or sect, but everyone joins himself voluntarily to that society in which he believes he has found that profession and worship which is truly acceptable to God. The hope of salvation, as it was the only cause of his entrance into that communion, so it can be the only reason of his stay there. For if afterwards he discover anything either erroneous in the doctrine or incongruous in the worship of that society to which he has joined himself, why should it not be as free for him to go out as it was to enter? No member of a religious society can be tied with any other bonds but what proceed from the certain expectation of eternal life. A church, then, is a society of members voluntarily uniting to that end.

...What I say concerning the mutual toleration of private persons differing from one another in religion, I understand also of particular churches which stand, as it were, in the same relation to each other as private persons among themselves: nor has any one of them any manner of jurisdiction over any other; no, not even when the civil magistrate (as it sometimes happens) comes to be of this or the other communion. For the civil government can give no new right to the church, nor the church to the civil government. So that, whether the magistrate join himself to any church, or separate from it, the church remains always as it was before--a free and voluntary society. It neither requires the power of the sword by the magistrate's coming to it, nor does it lose the right of instruction and excommunication by his going from it. This is the fundamental and immutable right of a spontaneous society--that it has power to remove any of its members who transgress the rules of its institution; but it cannot, by the accession of any new members, acquire any right of jurisdiction over those that are not joined with it. And therefore peace, equity, and friendship are always mutually to be observed by particular churches, in the same manner as by private persons, without any pretence of superiority or jurisdiction over one another.

...Nobody, therefore, in fine, neither single persons nor churches, nay, nor even commonwealths, have any just title to invade the civil rights and worldly goods of each other upon pretence of religion...

Locke, Second Treatise on Government (1690)

...Political power is that power, which every man having in the state of nature, has given up into the hands of the society, and therein to the governors, whom the society has set over itself, with this express or tacit trust, that it shall be employed for their good, and the preservation of their property: now this power, which every man has in the state of nature, and which he parts with to the society in all such cases where the society can secure him, is to use such means, for the preserving of his own property, as he thinks good, and nature allows him; and to punish the breach of the law of nature in others, so as (according to the best of his reasons) may most conduce to the preservation of himself, and the rest of mankind. So that the end and measure of this power, when in everyman's hands in the state of nature, being the preservation of all of his society, that is, all mankind in general, it can have no other end or measure, when in the hands of the magistrate, but to preserve the members of that society in their lives, liberties, and possessions; and so cannot be an absolute, arbitrary power over their lives and fortunes, which are as much as possible to be preserved; but a
power to make laws, and annex such penalties to them, as may tend to the preservation of the whole, by cutting off those parts, and those only, which are so corrupt, that they threaten the sound and healthy, without which no severity is lawful. And this power has its original only from compact, and agreement, and the mutual
consent of those who make up the community...

There are the bounds, which the trust, that is put in them by the society, and the law of God and nature, have set to the legislative power of every common-wealth, in
all forms of government.

First, They are to govern by promulgated established laws, not to be varied in particular cases, but to have one rule for the rich and poor, for the favorite at court, and
the country man at plow.

Secondly, These laws also ought to be designed for no other end ultimately, but the good of the people.

Thirdly, They must not raise taxes on the property of the people, without the consent of the people, given by themselves, or their deputies. And this properly concerns only such governments, where the legislative is always in being, or at least where the people have not reserved any part of the legislative to deputies, to be from time
to time chosen by themselves.

Fourthly, The legislative neither must nor can transfer the power of making laws to any body else, or lace it any where, but where the people have placed it...

...The legislative acts against the trust reposed in them, when they endeavor to invade the property of the subject, and to make themselves, or any part of the community, masters, or arbitrary disposers of the lives, liberties, or fortunes of the people.

The reason why men enter into society, is the preservation of their property; and the end why they choose and authorize a legislative, is that there may be laws made,
and rules set, as guards and fences to the properties of all the members of the society, to limit the power, and members of the society: for since it can never be supposed to be the will of the society, that the legislative should have a power to destroy that which one designs to secure, by entering into society, and for which the people submitted themselves to legislators of their own making; whenever the legislators endeavor to take away, and destroy the property of the people, or to reduce them to slavery under arbitrary power, they put themselves into a state of war with the people, who are thereupon absolved from any farther obedience, and are left to the common refuge, which God has provided for all men, against force and violence. Whensoever therefore the legislative shall transgress this fundamental rule of society; and either by ambition, fear, folly or corruption, endeavor to grasp themselves, or put into the hands of any other, an absolute power over the lives, liberties and estates of the people; by this breach of trust they forfeit the power the people had put into their hands for quite contrary ends, and it devolves to the people, who have a right to resume their original liberty, and, by the establishment of a new legislative, (such as they shall think fit) provide for their own safely and security, which is the end for which they are in society. What I have said here, concerning the legislative in general, holds true also concerning the supreme executor, who having a double trust put in him, both to have a part in the legislative, and the supreme execution of the law, acts against both, when he goes about to set up his own arbitrary will as the law of the society. He acts also contrary to his trust, when he either employs the force, treasure, and offices of the society, to corrupt the representatives, and gain them to his purposes; or openly pre-engages the electors, and prescribes to their choice, such whom he has, by solicitations, threats, promises, or otherwise, won to his designs; and employs them to bring in such, who have promised beforehand what to vote, and what to enact...

...revolutions happen not upon every little mismanagement in public affairs. Great mistakes in the ruling part, many wrong and inconvenient laws, and all the slips of
human frailty, will be borne by the people without mutiny or murmur. But if a long train of abuses, prevarications and artifices, all tending the same way, make the
design visible to the people, and they cannot but feel what they lie under, and see whither they are going; it is not to be wondered at, that they should then rouse
themselves, and endeavor to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected...

Alexander Pope (1688–1744), Essay on Man

Pope expresses worship of the perfection of nature.

ALL are but parts of one stupendous whole,
Whose body Nature is, and God the soul;
That, changed through all, and yet in all the same,
Great in the earth, as in th’ ethereal frame,
Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze,

Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees,
Lives through all life, extends through all extent,
Spreads undivided, operates unspent:
Breathes in our soul, informs our mortal part;
As full, as perfect, in a hair as heart;

As full, as perfect, in vile man that mourns
As the rapt Seraphim, that sings and burns:
To him no high, no low, no great, no small—
He fills, he bounds, connects, and equals all.…
All nature is but art, unknown to thee:

All chance, direction, which thou canst not see:
All discord, harmony not understood;
All partial evil, universal good:
And, spite of pride, in erring reason’s spite,
Our truth is clear, whatever is, is right.

Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)


When I see the spirit of liberty in action, I see a strong principle at work; and this, for a while, is all I can possibly know of it. The wild gas, the fixed air, is plainly broke loose; but we ought to suspend our judgment until the first effervescence is a little subsided, till the liquor is cleared, and until we see something deeper than the agitation of a troubled and frothy surface. I must betolerably sure, before I venture publicly to congratulate men upon a blessing, that they have really received one. Flattery corrupts both the receiver and the giver, and adulation is not of more service to the people than to kings. I should, therefore, suspend my congratulations on the new liberty of France until I was informed how it had been combined with government, with public force, with the discipline and obedience of armies, with the collection of an effective and well-distributed revenue, with morality and religion, with the solidity of property, with peace and order, with civil and social manners. All these (in their way) are good things, too, and without them liberty is not a benefit whilst it lasts, and is not likely to continue long. The effect of liberty to individuals is that they may do what they please; we ought to see what it will please them to do, before we risk congratulations which may be soon turned into complaints. Prudence would dictate this in the case of separate, insulated, private men, but liberty, when men act in bodies, is power. Considerate people, before they declare themselves, will observe the use which is made of power and particularly of so trying a thing as new power in new persons of whose principles, tempers, and dispositions they have little or no experience, and in situations where those who appear the most stirring in the scene may possibly not be the real movers.


John Wesley’s Last Letter (to William Wilberforce)

February 24, 1791

Dear Sir:

Unless the divine power has raised you us to be as Athanasius contra mundum, I see not how you can go through your glorious enterprise in opposing that execrable villainy which is the scandal of religion, of England, and of human nature. Unless God has raised you up for this very thing, you will be worn out by the opposition of men and devils. But if God be fore you, who can be against you? Are all of them together stronger than God? O be not weary of well doing! Go on, in the name of God and in the power of his might, till even American slavery (the vilest that ever saw the sun) shall vanish away before it.

Reading this morning a tract wrote by a poor African, I was particularly struck by that circumstance that a man who has a black skin, being wronged or outraged by a white man, can have no redress; it being a "law" in our colonies that the oath of a black against a white goes for nothing. What villainy is this?

That he who has guided you from youth up may continue to strengthen you in this and all things, is the prayer of, dear sir,

Your affectionate servant,
John Wesley

William Paley, Natural Theology (1802)

In crossing a heath, suppose I pitched my foot against a stone and were asked how the stone came to be there, I might possibly answer that for anything I knew to the
contrary it had lain there forever; nor would it, perhaps, be very easy to show the absurdity of this answer. But suppose I had found a watch upon the ground, and it should be inquired how the watch happened to be in that place, I should hardly think of the answer which I had before given, that for anything I knew the watch might have always been there. Yet why should not this answer serve for the watch as well as for the stone? Why is it not as admissible in the second case as in the first?

For this reason, and for no other, namely, that when we come to inspect the watch, we perceive -- what we could not discover in the stone -- that its several parts are framed and put together for a purpose, e.g., that they are so formed and adjusted as to produce motion, and that motion so regulated as to point out the hour of the day; that if the different parts had been differently shaped from what they are, of a different size from what they are, or placed after any other manner or in any other order than that in which they are placed, either no motion at all would have been carried on in the machine, or none which would have answered the use that is now served by it.

To reckon up a few of the plainest of these parts and of their offices, all tending to one result; we see a cylindrical box containing a coiled elastic spring, which, by its endeavor to relax itself, turns round the box. We next observe a flexible chain -- artificially wrought for the sake of flexure -- communicating the action of the spring from the box to the fusee. We then find a series of wheels, the teeth of which catch in and apply to each other, conducting the motion from the fusee to the balance and from the balance to the pointer, and at the same time, by the size and shape of those wheels, so regulating that motion as to terminate in causing an index, by an equable and measured progression, to pass over a given space in a given time. We take notice that the wheels are made of brass, in order to keep them from rust; the springs of steel, no other metal being so elastic; that over the face of the watch there is placed a glass, a material employed in no other part of the work, but in the room of which, if there had been any other than a transparent substance, the hour could not be seen without opening the case.

This mechanism being observed -- it requires indeed an examination of the instrument, and perhaps some previous knowledge of the subject, to perceive and understand it; but being once, as we have said, observed and understood -- the inference we think is inevitable, that the watch must have had a maker-that there must have existed, at some time and at some place or other, an artificer or artificers who formed it for the purpose which we find it actually to answer, who comprehended its construction and designed its use.

... Every observation which was made in our first chapter concerning the watch may be repeated with strict propriety concerning the eye, concerning animals, concerning plants, concerning, indeed, all the organized parts of the works of nature.
William Blake, ‘Holy Thursday’ (1794)

Is this a holy thing to see
In a rich and fruitful land,
Babes reduc'd to misery,
Fed with cold and usurous hand?

Is that trembling cry a song?
Can it be a song of joy?
And so many children poor?
It is a land of poverty!

And their sun does never shine,
And their fields are bleak and bare,
And their ways are fill'd with thorns:
It is eternal winter there.

For where-e'er the sun does shine,
And where-e'er the rain does fall,
Babe can never hunger there,
Nor poverty the mind appall.

Blake, Mock on, Mock on, Voltaire, Rousseau (1790s)

Mock on, Mock on, Voltaire, Rousseau;
Mock on, Mock on, 'tis all in vain.
You throw the sand against the wind,
And the wind blows it back again.

And every sand becomes a Gem
Reflected in the beams divine:
Blown back, they blind the mocking Eye,
But still in Israel's paths they shine.

The Atoms of Democritus
And Newton's Particles of light
Are sands upon the Red Sea shore,
Where Israel's tents do shine so bright.


Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations (1776)

The central theme of The Wealth of Nations is the construction of a social order in which the individual, in pursuing his own self-interest, necessarily contributes to the
general interests of society. Smith approaches this question pragmatically. For example, in the case of the postal service, Smith approved of government-operated enterprises. In general, however, Smith wanted to limit the role of government-run enterprises, not on doctrinaire grounds, but rather on the practical grounds that it is hard to design them so as to take account of the following observed phenomenon:

Public services are never better performed than when their reward comes only in consequence of their being performed, and is proportioned to the diligence employed in performing them. (p. 678)

Of decisive importance to Smith in his design of the optimal social structure is his belief in the strength of individual self-interest. Properly channeled this force will steadily advance the common social interest. Much of the spirit of Smith’s social prescriptions comes from his belief that this powerful force is most effectively taken advantage of by society when the individual is allowed a large amount of personal freedom to pursue his own economic betterment and is allowed to reap the rewards for such efforts:

The natural effort of every individual to better his own condition, when suffered to exert itself with freedom and security, is so powerful a principle, that it is alone, and without any assistance, not only capable of carrying on the society to wealth and prosperity, but of surmounting a hundred impertinent obstructions with which the folly of human laws too often encumbers its operations...
(p. 508)

Through countless examples Smith makes clear that the private self-interest of the individual will promote the larger interests of society only if the most careful attention is
given to the design of social institutions. Of the most fundamental importance is the impartial administration of justice:

Commerce and manufactures can seldom flourish long in any state which does not enjoy a regular administration of justice, in which the people do not feel themselves secure in the possession of their property, in which the faith of contracts is not supported by law, and in which the authority of the state is not supposed to be regularly employed in enforcing the payment of debts from all those who are able to pay. Commerce and manufactures, in short, can seldom flourish in any state in which there is not a certain degree of confidence in the justice of government. (p. 862)

England: 1600-1800

For more details, see pp. 319-340 in the textbook.

1600 - East India Company chartered - very caffeinated centuries!

At the beginning of the 17th century...

- England and Wales contained more than four million people

- The population had nearly doubled over the previous century

- The heaviest concentrations of population were in the southeast and along the coasts

- 85 percent of its people living on the land.

- Norwich and Bristol: 15,000 each

- Exeter, York, and Newcastle: about 10,000 inhabitants each

- London: more than a quarter of a million people (1600); nearly half a million (1700), most of them poor migrants who flocked to the capital in search of work or charity.

- London was the centre of government, of overseas trade and finance, of fashion, taste, and culture.


1603 - James VI of Scotland, only son of Mary Queen of Scots, becomes King James I of England

- In Scotland, James was described as pleasing to look at and pleasing to hear.
- He was sober in habit, enjoyed vigorous exercise, and doted on his Danish wife, Anne, who had borne him two male heirs

- In England, however, he was seen as:

* hunchbacked and ugly

* tongue too large for his mouth

* a speech impediment that obscured his words

* drank to excess

* filthy clothing

* homosexual and preyed upon the young boys

- "A Counterblast to Tobacco" (1604): one of the first, and surely one of the best attacks on smoking ever written.

**** Smoking, James tells us, is "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, and in the black, stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stygian smoke of the pit that is bottomless."

- “divine right of kings” - king above the law (even common law)


--> “No bishops, no king”

--> In the Bible, many see an absolute monarch in God

--> Roman Emperors had asserted this POV, and people in MAges assumed that God acted through actions of the monarch

--> King says “We,” not “I” - he is servant of God and the people, at least in theory

--> Seeds in earlier English history. Even Elizabeth I wrote to her last
Parliament in 1601:

"The Royal Prerogative was not to be canvassed, nor disputed, nor examined, and did not even admit of any limitation, that it was in vain to attempt tying the Queen's hands by Laws and Statutes, since by means of her dispensing powers she could loosen herself at her pleasure."

--> James simply “made systematic and public a traditional assumption” (Barzun, From Dawn to Decadence, p. 249).

- conflict brews: divine right (monarchy) vs. gov’t by consent (Parliament)

--> in London, even, there were around 3,000 elected officials, and 1000s more freemen were involved in local government

- James has only contempt for Palriament - seemed only to be “cries, shouts, and confusion”

- Fired judges, lectured Parliament

- Puritan problems

* James wants to control state and church

* Puritans want apolstolic succession and episcopal gov’t to go

* They want a presbyterian form of church gov’t (elders and ministers rule)

* James I had been reared by Scottish Presbyterians

* Putian hopes are dashed

* James harries some Puritans out of England

--> by 1604, 300 Puritans leave their pulpits

--> to Scrooby in 1609 and America in 1620

* 1609: Penal laws against Catholics

* One area of agreement: King James Bible of 1611 (most beloved ever)

* STORM CLOUDS: Others seek refuge in Parliament (common cause)

- English in New World

- attempts to colonize Virginia and New England

- 1607: Jamestown: first permanent English settlement in new World
- 1607: Popham colony in Maine

1625: Charles I, son of James, becomes king

- father’s disdain for Parliament and belief in divine right of kings

- costs of wars with Spain and France make him dependent on parliament for funds

- Eventually Parliament says: no more money

- WHAT DOES CHARLES DO: forces citizens to give him “loans” or face jail

- Also troops were lodged and fed for free in private homes (Constitution on this?)

- Many people imprisoned without trial

- Much of this was illegal under British law

- PEOPLE and PARLIAMENT in an uproar

* 1628: Petition of Right
- Charles grudging signs it
- Reiterates British freedoms

- 1629: Chalres dissolves Parliament!
- says he’ll rule England without Parliament or people’s consent
- “Eleven Years’ Tyranny” of Charles I
- becomes an absolute monarchy instead of limited, rep. gov’t

- Charles makes matters worse by appointing William Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury
- Laud strengthens power of king as head of church
- Enforces church attendance laws
- Puritans experience severe persecution and harassment from royal officials
* imprisonment, whipping, branding, etc.
* some flee to New World - Mass. Bay Colony
- 24,000 by 1642
* many more view to stay and fight for liberty
--> denounce Laud as Antichrist and take up with merchants who are increasingly disgruntled by hairbrained gov’t tax schemes

- Seems to some that laud is trying to bring in Catholicism through the back door

- Charles and Laud try to impose Church of England on Scottish

- most were Presbyterian
- Charles decides to invade Scotland in 1638
- Scots rout the English

- 1640: Charles recalls Parliament to ask for funds to raise an army to fight in Scotland

- Parliment agrees as long as Charles addresses their grievances
* gov’t can raise money only through Parliament
* limits on religious persecution powers of the king
* prevents king from dissolving Parliament

- Sits for 13 years = Long Parliament


- Charles by 1641 had returned to his old ways

- November 1641: Puritans in Parliament pass Grand Remonstrance
- additonal grievances against the king
- wanted to further limit king’s power
- Root and Branch Bill - calls for abolition of bishops

- Charles rejects the document

- Jan. 1642: leads 100s of armed men into Commons to arrest five Puritan leaders of Parliament
--> they flee to London, enforcing London/Parliament bond
--> people mass in support of Parliament and king backs down
--> July 1642: loyalist Mayor of London clapped in Tower of London and a radical appointed in his place

- Civil War between King Charles and Parliament erupts
* Roundheads - supporters of Parliament
* Cavaliers - supporters of the King

- August 22, 1642 - king begins war in Nottingham in central England

- 1642: Puritans in Parliament close the theaters
--> plays continue to be written and acted in the universities
--> players as disreputrable
--> “houses of ill repute”

- By 1643:
- Parliamentary armies hold SW England, including London
- Royal armies hold Wales, SW England, and Northern England

- Parliament’s secret weapon: Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) -”Ironsides”

- London raises a force of 24,000 to defend the city, plus ditches and fortifications

John Milton: “Behold now this vast city, city of refuge, the mansion-house of liberty, encompassed and surrounded with His protection.” --John Milton

- In 1644, Milton publishes Areopagitica (1644) USE HANDOUT

- During the civil war, more radical Protestant groups, such as Baptists and Quakers, who were hostile to all imposed forms of religious authority, gain followers

* Anabaptists - communists
* Ranters - anarchists
* Diggers - collectivists

--> Really all an extension of Protestant reformation

- Cronwell routs Royal armies at Marston Moor, near York, on July 2, 1644 and Naseby, north of London, on June 14, 1645

- By 1646, the King’s forces surrender!

- For next three years, Charles tries to reclain his throne

- Jan. 30, 1649 - Rump Parliament declares Charles guilty of treason - beheaded

“The Execution of Charles I: History and Perspectives,” by Freida H. Blackwell and Jay Losey (Baylor University): <>

- Commonwealth established - republic under Cromwell

- only lasts 1649-1653
- really a military dictatorship
- Puritans reforms irk many who had supported Parliament:
a. Heavy taxation
b. Empowering soldiers to enter houses to enfore Sabbath observance
c. Banning the celebration of Christmas
d. Theaters were closed
e. Sunday sports were banned
- Catholics in Ireland endure terrible persecution
* By the 1640s, Ireland was effectively an English plantation. Family estates had been seized and foreign (Scottish) labor brought in to work them

* The persecution of Catholics, begun with Henry VIII's split from Rome, barred them from practicing their faith.

* Resentment led to uprisings in Ulster and Leinster in 1641, and by early 1642 most of Ireland was again under Irish control.

* In 1649, Oliver Cromwell arrived in Dublin as commander in chief and lord lieutenant of Ireland, and set about destroying all opposition.

* To this day, some Irish spit when they say his name.

* Cromwell left no doubt about who was in charge. His campaign lasted only 7 months, but his brutal, bloodthirsty methods broke the back of all resistance.

* After subduing all but Galway and Waterford, Cromwell left Ireland and its administration in the care of his lieutenants and returned to England.

* The Irish were offered a choice after the massacres: Anyone suspected of resisting the English forces could leave the country, give up their lands, and resettle in Connaught or County Clare, or die.

* With this expropriation, the English gained control over most of the country's arable land, and cemented their power.

--> Penal Laws passed

* Protestant lords were granted total political power and control of the land

* laws were enacted to effectively impoverish the Catholic population. Catholics could not:

a. purchase land;
b. Catholic landholdings were split up unless the family who held them converted
c. Catholic schools and priests were banned
d. Catholics were barred from professions or commissions in the army
e. They were forced to pay a tax to the Anglican church
f. All marriages between Protestants and Catholics were annulled
g. Every priest who celebrated a marriage between a Catholic and a Protestant, or between two Protestants, was condemned to be hanged
BUT: Though it was death for Catholics to exercise their religion within the walls of Dublin, yet many continued to reside there privately; nor was a devoted clergy wanting to risk every peril in order to administer to them the holy Sacraments.

--> OUT OF THIS comes Hobbes USE HANDOUT

- 1653: Cromwell dissolves Parliament and sets up a Protectorate

- “Lord Protector”
- gave himself powers even James or Charles didn’t have
- still, promotes religious toleration and protection from foreign powers

1658: Richard Cromwell ducceeds his father as “Lord Protector”

- But tide was turning again - many want monarchy restored

- Parliament negotiates return of Charles I’s exiled son, Charles II, to return from France in 1660

- called the Restoration
- restores Stuart line
- London welcomes the king back with 20,000 on horse and foot “brandishing their swords and shouting with inexpressible joy”
--> pealing bells and cheering crowds as he arrives in the city

- By 1662, monarchy is fully reestablished

- ALL is well for a while

- More sophisticated

- “Merrie Monarch”

- Charles II renounces abuses of James I and Charles I

- In favor of religious toleration

- Licenses two playhouses in London

- Charters Royal Society of London, an early scientific society, in 1662

--> motto: Nullis in Verba (“Take nobody’s word for it; see it for yourself’)

--> To be scientifically sound, the experiment must be repeatable

--> early on: problems of orchards, best way to prepare cider, people who ate spiders and toads; also on astronomy and other issues

--> Its prestige grew

--> in 1678, Dutch scientist wrote to Royal Society about “little animals” in a drop of water (discovered the world of bacteria)

--> Showed how far Europe had come; in Middle Ages, Roger Bacon (c. 1220-1292) tried to stress need for experimental science and was accused of black magic

--> One of the most famous members and presidents was Newton

- Colonial holdings expand - NH, NY, NJ, DE, PA added

- THEN Mother Mature rears her ugly head

Nature Wrecks Havoc

...and godly see it as a sign of God’s judgment on Restoration ‘Sodom’

- Great (Smallpox) Plague, 1665 - 80,000 die (1 in 6)

* closely packed houses lead to the spread

* sheds, stores, pigs, poultry were ideal for black rat

* It began outside the old city walls - Us vs. Them

* some called it the “poor’s Plague”

* other plagues in London:
1563 - 17,500 die
1578 - 6,000 die
1582 - 7,000 die
1593 - 18,000+ die
1603 (James I) - 30,000 die
1625 (Charles I) - 40,000 die

* Put red crosses on houses - “Lord, have mercy upon us.”

* Those who could fled to the country (a la Boccacio’s Decameron), others to
boats on the Thames

* July - even King and his court flee the city

* Mayor orders dogs and cats killed - 40K dogs and 200K cats killed
--> but backfires and rats love it

* Cooler weather in the fall brings plague to an end. Still even in October, Pepys writes:

“Lord, how empty the streets are and melancholy, so many poor sick people in the streets, full os sores: and so many sad stories overheard as I walk, everybody talkingof this death, and that man sick, and so many in this place, and so many in that.”

* Not until February 1666 does King feel safe to return to London

- Great Fire of London, 1666

- Sunday morning, the 2nd September 1666, the destruction of medieval London began.

- baker forgets to put out embers from previous night

- Within 5 days the city which Shakespeare had known was destroyed by fire.

- An area of one and a half miles by half a mile lay in ashes; 373 acres inside the city walls and 63 acres outside

- 87 churches destroyed (including St. Paul's Cathedral) and 13,200 houses.

- 400 streets lay smoking and 100,000 were homeless. Pepys: “the saddest sight of desolation that I ever saw.”

- only 6 people are definitely known to have been killed.

- one witness: “I went again to see the ruins, for it was now no longer a city. London was, but is no more.”

- winds blow sparks to thatched roof houses

- In destroying the close packed houses and other buildings it is also likely that the fire finally put an end to the Great Plague that had devastated the city in the previous year

- four fifths of the City had been destroyed

- Like NYC, plans to rebuild came in almost immediately

- By early 1670s, most private houses were occupied and trade revived

Treaty of Dover (1670)

- secret treaty with France w/o Parliament’s knowledge

CHARLES GIVES: toleration for RCs and join RC himself!

- Much of England unites against Charles II

- Whig Party arises to fight the king’s policies


- 1685: Charles II dies and his brother, James II, a Catholic, becomes king

- James II tries to reimpose Catholicism on England, but unsuccessfully


- Jun 1688: several members of Parliament offer throne to William of Orange, Dutch king

- William arrives with his army in England, and James II can only muster weak opposition

- William and his wife become William III and Mary II, king and queen of England

- called the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688

- 1689: William and Mary support the English Bill of Rights - permanently enshrining traditional English political liberties USE HANDOUT and USE HANDOUT OF Locke’s Second Treatise

- Same year: Toleration Act was adopted - step toward true religious freedom
--> John Locke: church is a choice, a “free and voluntary society” USE HANDOUT
--> YET: Locke explicitly excluded Catholics and atheists from toleration

- 1694: Mary II dies - William III left to govern England alone

- 1702: William III dies

- Only heir to throne was mary’s sister, Anne (ruled 1702-1714)

- Anne was last Stuart monarch of England

- 1707: official union of England and Scotland’s governments into the United Kingdom of Great Britain.


- Inherits science from the Greeks and Romans, like Aristotle and Ptolemy

- Through Middle Ages and into Renaissance, thinkers try to modify these sciences without throwing them out (even Copernicus does this)

- Eventually William of Occam’s ‘razor’ (principle of economy) -- that the best explanation is the one that calls for the least number of assumptions -- wins out

Francis Bacon
(1561-1626) - asst. to James I; criticism of pure reason; philosophers will never understand the real world;

--> separate science and faith into their proper realms, so each can flourish

** “Book of God”
** “Book of Nature”

--> Revolt against ancients: they can no longer be the authority, because we know more than they did

--> We are the ancient and wise; they are the young and ignorant

--> Authority is worthless; something isn’t true simply because someone like Aristotle or Plato said it was

--> linked ruler’s authority to his authority over nature

Robert Burton
- Oxford Univ. - first systematic psychiatrist

- gathered case studies on melancholy (now known as manci depressive illness)

- believed mental cases should be handled with sympathy

- melancholy linked to lack of affection in childhood

- agreed with Aristotle that melancholy tends to attack the more gifted

- believed that self-awareness of the problem comes through discussing the matter with someone and also by taking medications

- comes close to a discovery of the unconscious mind

William Harvey
(1628) - discovered that blood circulated from heart, through arteries, veins, and lungs - Ushers in era of modern medicine

- Old ideas:
a. blood loves in tidelike manner
b. arteries carry air as well as blood
c. heart manufactured “spirits” necessary for the body

John Ray (1627-1705) - workable definition of species (a set of individuals who give rise through reproduction to new individuals similar to themselves); rids science of mythical creatures; but still believes in fixity of the species

Edward Tyson (1651-1708) - anatomy - disssects an African chimpanzee and shows how its anatomy compares with that of human beings - in his 1699 work, he listed 48 similarities and 34 differences between man and chimpanzee - “missing link” to be found?

Irish bishop James Ussher (1581-1656) - In 1654: Creation had occurred on October 26, 4004 B.C., at 9 a.m.

Newton (1642-1727) - Principia Mathematica (1687)

“Nature was an open book whose letters he could read without effort.” - Einstein

a. Law of Universal Gravitation - “every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other force” depending on the distance between objects and the total mass

b. Three laws of motion:

1. law of inertia - stays in state of rest or of uniform motion in a a straight line, except if acted upon by external forces
2. F=ma
3. To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction


1. - Applies to the entire solar system
2. - Explains cause of tides
3. - orbits of comets are in ellipses
4. - motion of fluids (early hydredynamics)
5. - overthrows old universe and ushers in one governed by mathematical law

--> But Newton as years went on saw with greater clarity the mystery beneath the universe and saw the limits of human reason
--> wrote manuscripts on alchemy (650K words) and theology (1.3 milion words)

--> NOT TO MENTION: work on light (discovered spectrum); invention of calculus

--> Knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 (first person in England for scientific achievements)

Lord Herbert of Cherbury - Father of Deism

Of Truth (1625) -

1. There is a supreme power
2. This supreme power must be worshipped
3. We need to follow the dictates of conscience
4. We should repent for mistakes
5. There are rewards and punishments in afterlife

- Great Frost in London, 1684 - Thames River frozen over - people set up shop on the river; horses and carriages go over it


- As beginning of 18th century, England was a pardox: more personal freedom, yet more personal slavery to vice and corruption

- 1714: Parliament chooses Queen Anne’s Protestant cousin, George of Hanover in Germany, to be the new king

- 1714-1727 - rule of George I

a. George can’t speak English
b. ‘hands-off’ style

- real power is Sir Robert Walpole - first true P.M. in English history

- George II (reigns 1727-1760)

- does know English

- also ‘hands-off’ style

- Industrial Revolution begins (also Luddites - destroy machines because they alleged caused unemployment)

- Wars with France spill over into the New World

- 1713: France controls St. Lawrence River valley and midwest US

- 1763: loses all its colonies in new world to Spain and England

- 1754-1763 - French and Indian War

- George Washington

- 1757: New P.M., William Pitt, takes control and turns the tide

- 1760: King George III becomes king

- 1763: Peace of Paris
- France loses Canada and land E. of Miss.
- Land west of Miss. given to Canads
- Spanish Florida given to England

- American Revolution (1775-1781)

- King George III is much more hands-on in colonies

- Had suffered from benign neglect of a sort

- Articles of COnfederation --> Constitution


- 17th century - turmoil

- as 18th century began, it was to be shaped by several new features:

* end of absolute monarchy
* increasing power of middle class (Locke’s Second Treatise)
* development of science
* diffusion of rational thought

--> culture becomes democratized

- 18th century -

a. settling down -

1719: Robinson Crusoe published
1726: Gulliver’s Travels published
--> need for more art: landscape paintings (interest in nature; Richard Wilson [1714-1782] and Thomas Gainsborough [1727-1788])

b. etiquette over ethics
- letters of earl of Chesterfield - rules of gentlemany behavior
1. never laugh out loud
- duels fought over proper Greek pronunciation

--> English artist William Hogarth attacks:

* foppish and idle aristocracy
* false cultural standards
* drunkenness
* degradtion of lower classes
* common social cruelty of the age

c. great social problems!

- 3 bottles of wine at a sitting was common
- poor: drank gin and alcohol consumption soared
- men abandon wives and children
- pickpocketing was rampant
- 160 ‘death penalty’ crimes, but no time to hand them all
- Gambling - money, children, freedom, lives (loser in hanged); clubs

d. search for harmony - art of Thomas Gainsborough (LIFE, p. 223)

e. spirit of compromise

f. age of extremes of another sort: rich and poor
1. rich - 40,000 pounds ($1 million) a year
2. industrious laborer - 9 shillings ($14) a week

g. against “enthusiasm” - leads to...

- Age of Reason

- Locke - Deism - philosopher of Newtonian worldview
- Hume - Overturns belief in miracles and makes agnosticism respectable
- Matthew Tindal - Jesus as the Teacher of Common Sense - Christianity was acceptable because it was reasonable, not because it was founded on the miraculous; Jesus was an inspired teacher of an elevates system of morality

h. But people also tired of crime and vice and sin. They wanted something more...

- Revivals

- John Wesley - 10s of thousands converted to Methodism - Jesus cares about right living - in a way recovering Catholic emphasis on works

- Great Awakening - Edwards and Whitefield

- Reformers

- William Wilberforce - works to ban slave trade (1807) and slavery altogether (1833) -- USE HANDOUT
- Robert Raikes - Sunday Schools started in 1780
- John Howard - prison reform
- William Carey - 1792 - mission to India

- other notables

- Adam Smith USE HANDOUT
- Edmund Burke (1729-1797) - good government depends on good morality; reflections on French Revolution USE HANDOUT
- Sir William Blackstone (1723-1780) - legal scholar - human laws grounded in God’s laws
- Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) - literary critic - defends Bible against creeping Desim
- Captain James Cook (1728-1779) - explorer NZ, New Guinea, Australia, Hawaii; speculates about Antarctica
- Thomas Malthus (1798) - Essay on Population: food-123; people: 2-4-8-16
--> English population doubles between 1760 and 1820 (7 to 14 million)


- William Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge (and Romantic Movement) - --> return to a move supernatural understanding of the world
--> REBIRTH of what Rationalism discredits: feelings and imagination (as ways of apprehending truth)
--> more than just what eye sees
--> society had become an evil force moulding and stunting its citizens (against slave trade, maltreatment of poor, industrialization)

- William Paley - natural theology - 1802

SETS US UP FOR 19TH CENTURY and the arrival of DARWIN and NIETZSCHE, who at the end of the 19th century will proclaim “GOD IS DEAD”!