Name: _____________________

The Church in the Dark Ages Worksheet
chapter nine, pp. 494-528

Fill in the blank

1. The Macedonian emperors attacked the ___________ world with extraordinary courage and tenacity.
2. By 870 A.D., the _____________ had become virtually a Muslim lake.
3. By the end of the tenth century, three Muslim dynasties competed with one another: the _____________, the _______________, and the _______________ (in Spain).
4. The immediate cause of the Byzantine _____________ took place in 924 A.D., when Muslims from __________ took the city of ____________ and sold ________ young men and girls into ____________.
5. The first leader of the Byzantine crusaders was Emperor _________________ (919-944 A.D.).
6. Under __________ Phocas, a great solider, Byzantium struck heavy blows against the Muslims. The island of ________ was retaken, then St. Paul’s hometown of ___________, then the island of __________ and the ancient city of __________ (mentioned in Acts 11).
7. Prayers, money, and ___________ were recruited for the deliverance of the Church of the Holy ______________ from the Muslims.
8. The Christian armies stepped onto the soil of Palestine for the first time in _____ years. They occupied the city of __________, Jesus’ hometown, but stopped short of entering _______________.
9. In response to the Christian incursion into Palestine, in 1009-1010 A.D., the Caliph _________________ persecuted Christians, obliged them to wear a ___________ of infamy, burned __________, and destroyed the Church of the Holy _______________.
10. This was a time of great pomp and prestige surrounding the ____________ Emperor. He was seen as the spiritual head of the Eastern ___________. His authority was thus ______________.
10. The most influential office in the palace was that of the ________________.
11. Since the patriarchies of ______________, _________________, and ________________ were under Muslim control, the Patriarch of Byzantium assumed greater prominence. He aced as if he were the _______ of the East.
12. The Byzantines confused the City of ______ with the City of _______. One archbishop even used _________ bread in Holy Communion!
13. The successor of the Patriarch Ignatius was named _____________. The Pope, Nicholas I, was skeptical of the circumstances surrounding his ______________ and refused to __________ him as the legitimate patriarch.
14. A council under Photius declared that the Pope was ______________.
15. By 879 A.D., Photius was recognized by Rome, and the Eastern and Western Churches were _____________ for the moment.
16. As the East-West rift deepened, the Byzantines, for the first time, began to call into question the _______________ of the Bishop of Rome (the Pope).
17. The man who premeditated and determined upon the East-West rupture was _____________, Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043 to 1058 A.D. He was a stern ___________ and a keen _____________.
18. The newly appointed ____________ patriarch revived the ancient custom of addressing a synodical letter to the __________.
19. The schism was precipitated over the grounds that the Pope had violated the sacrosanct ______________ of the Eastern Church. The West used _________ bread, ate ____________ without draining the blood, sometimes fasted on _____________, and their priests were _____________.
20. Cerularius ordered the ___________ churches in Constantinople to be closed.
21. On July 16, _______ A.D., in the Church of St. _______________, papal delegates issued a document (papal bull) _____________ the Patriarch of Constantinople. Laving Th. basilica, they shook the ______ from their shoes. The delegates and the Pope hoped this action would persuade the ___________ to get rid of Cerularius and reconcile with Rome.
22. The Patriarch of _________ offered to __________ the dispute, but was repulsed with disdain.
23. In Constantinople, the papal bull of excommunication was publicly ___________ and as Eastern synod declared the Pope guilty of seeking to __________ the true faith.
24. Both Rome and Byzantium declared _____________, and Christendom took a long time to recognize the fact of ____________. Popes continued to have __________ relations with the Byzantine king.
25. The soul of Byzantium resided in a people fascinated by __________, with a mania for small ___________, whose faith was also so ____________.
26. The Byzantine and Armenian Churches clashed because the Armenians forbade ___________ and _________ on fast days.
27. Yet the ritualism of Byzantium may have helped prevent it from being overwhelmed by _____________.
28. The ________________ movement flourished in Byzantium in the ninth and tenth centuries. Most followed the Rule of St. _____________. The leading example of this movement was the community of Mount ________ in Greece.
29. During this time, ___________ was the ‘New York’ of the Bosporus. It was a city of over __________ people.
30. After 1025 A.D., the glory of ______________ began to fade.
31. name three enemies Byzantium faced in the eleventh century: _______________, ________________, and _______________.
32. The gravest threat to Byzantium came from the ____________ of Asia. They captured __________ in 1055 A.D. and precipitated the ______________.

Short answer

1. Why was the rupture between East and West so long postponed?

2. Why did the Byzantines finally break with Rome (the Great Schism)?

3. What was a synodical letter? What was its purpose?

4. Describe the monastic community of Mount Athos.

5. Describe the city of Constantinople at this time in its history.

6. Discuss the art of Byzantium in the ninth and tenth centuries.