The Church in the Dark Ages Worksheet
chapter six, pp. 332-350
Fill in the blank
1. Mohammed needed to wage _____ to conquer his enemies. This became known as a ______ war, or _______.
2. If a Muslim died in a holy war, he was guaranteed entry into __________.
3. Mohammed never intended holy war as an instrument of __________ expansion, yet by ______ the disparate tribes, he forged an Arab ____________.
4. After Mohammeds death, holy war became a war of __________, mainly against ___________, who held the desired lands.
5. When Mohammed died, he had not arranged for a ___________, so the Muslim lands were ruled by _________. The first two successors of Mohammed were ____________ and ____________.
6. The first areas targeted for Muslim conquest were ____________, _____________, and ______________.
7. The Muslim army was first comprised of ________ hordes. It was composed of a magnificent ______ and of a light __________ of archers.
8. On August 20, 635 A.D. __________ fell to the Muslims. Next the ________ empire fell. Jerusalem fell in _____ A.D.
9. In Egypt, by 640 A.D. ____________ fell, and in 643 A.D. ________ fell (see map, pp. 322-323).
10. In some cases, the Muslim armies were hailed as _________.
11. The Muslim conquests were less violent than those of the ________ tribes. Some Muslim chieftains helped rebuild _________.
12. Muslim invaders encountered virtually no ________ from those they conquered.
13. The Byzantine capital ____________ was attacked twice by Muslim armies.
14. The first attack lasted ___ years, and the Byzantines won thanks to the use of _____________.
15. The second attack began in ___ A.D. and involved ____ Muslim ships. They were routed by the forces of the new Byzantine Emperor, ___________.
16. The Muslims conquered _________ in North Africa in 644 A.D. (see map, pp. 322-323). __________ was taken in 698 A.D.
17. The nomadic ________ in North Africa were conquered by the Muslim armies and then converted to Islam.
18. At first, Christians could live within Muslim-controlled North Africa if they paid ____ of their income as a _________, but by the middle of the eighth century they faced the choice of __________ or ___________. Many churches were converted into ___________.
19. After North Africa fell to the Muslims, _______, across the Straits of Gibraltar, was next in line. It was attacked in _____ A.D.
20. ________ Muslim Berbers routed the forces of the Spanish king, ___________ the Goth. _______ Spain collapsed like a deck of cards.
21. Several of the Spanish Visigoth kings persecuted the __________. They carried out forcible __________, ___________ children, and compelled couples to ______ when one of them was Jewish. Church leaders such as St. _______ of Seville protests against these policies.
22. In the Spain of the Visigoths, the _________ controlled the Church.
23. The Muslims were a _________ in Spain. While the ________ were employed in some crucial government posts, __________ cherished in their hearts the hope of revenge and liberation.
24. Some Christians in Spain fled to the _____________ in the ________ and formed a _________ movement against the Muslim rulers. Two leaders of the movement were ______________ and ______________.
25. In 750 A.D., the __________ of Damascus were deposed and replaced by the ______________, who established their seat of government in _____________. Their new capital city was ____________.