Three types of revolution:
* Political
* Economic
* Philosophical


- rise of revolutionary nationalism

* Nationalism: belief that people derive their identity from their nation and owe their nation their primary loyalty

* What makes a nation?

1. common language
2. common religion
3. common political authority
4. common traditions
5. shared historical circumstances

* nature abhors a vacuum - nationalism takes the place of religion/God as an object of devotion; it becomes a secular religion for some

* derives from Rousseau and his disciples - idea that every people has a “national spirit”

* collecting of national stories - Grimm brothers (published between 1812-1818)
- “Little Red Riding Hood”
- “Snow White”

* nationalism is invoked by French, Germans, Italians, Greeks, etc.

* Nationalism is a powerful tool for resisting foreign influence (military, cultural, etc.); it also can rally many to overthrwo foreign yokes

* Many nationalists were committed to an idea of a Europe of free peoples

* Victor Hugo: vision of a “European republic” with its own parliament

* Some nationalists were committed to revolutionary means, as we’ll see later in the week

- smoldering embers of the French Revolution ignite fires around Europe
- Two alternatives facing Continental Europe: anarchy or dictatorship


* Roots in Locke and Rousseau’s General Will.

Kant (1724-1804)

- born in 18th century in Germany, and dies in 1804, but real impact is felt in 19th century
-- similar to Locke and even Darwin

- singlehandly set the stage for German philosophy in the nineteenth century

- He was a good-tempered, sweet and pious man, so punctual that his neighbors set their clocks by his daily walk

- The basic intention of his philosophy was noble: to restore human dignity amidst a skeptical world worshiping science

-- Kant was attending a lecture by a materialistic astronomer on the topic of man's place in the universe. The astronomer concluded his lecture with: “So you see that astronomically speaking, man is utterly insignificant.” Kant replied: “Professor, you forgot the most important thing, man is the astronomer.”

His contributions?

1. Truth is relative

-- The simple citizens of his native Konigsburg, Germany, where he lived and wrote in the latter half of the 18th century, understood this better than professional scholars, for they nicknamed Kant “The Destroyer” and named their dogs after him

-- helped bury the medieval synthesis of faith and reason.

-- He described his philosophy as “clearing away the pretensions of reason to make room for faith” -- as if faith and reason were enemies and not allies.

-- In Kant, Luther's divorce between faith and reason becomes

-- Kant thought religion could never be a matter of reason, evidence or argument, or even a matter of knowledge, but a matter of feeling, motive and attitude.

-- “I think” becomes “I ought”

-- This assumption has deeply influenced the minds of most religious educators

-- The moral law is not “without” but “within,” not objective but subjective, not a Natural Law of objective rights and wrongs that comes from God but a man-made law by which we decide to bind ourselves.
--> But if we bind ourselves, are we really bound?

-- Morality is a matter of subjective intention only. It has no content except the Golden Rule (Kant's “categorical imperative”).

-- If the moral law came from God rather than from man, Kant argues, then man would not be free in the sense of being autonomous. This is true, Kant then proceeds to argue that man must be autonomous, therefore the moral law does not come from God but from man.

-- The Church argues from the same premise that the moral law does in fact come from God, therefore man is not autonomous. He is free to choose to obey or disobey the moral law, but he is not free to create the law itself.

-- He defines religion as "the acknowledgement that our duties are God's commandments".

-- He describes the essence of religion as consisting in morality.

-- The ideal Church should be an "ethical republic"; it should discard all dogmatic definitions, accept "rational faith" as its guide in all intellectual matters, and establish the kingdom of God on earth by bringing about the reign of duty.

-- Though Kant thought of himself as a Christian, he explicitly denied that we could know that there really exists (1) God, (2) free will, and (3) immorality.

-- He said we must live as if these three ideas were true because if we believe them we will take morality seriously, and if we don't we will not.

-- It is this justification of belief by purely practical reasons that is a terrible mistake. Kant believes in God not because it is true but because it is helpful.

--> Why not believe in Santa Claus then?
--> Those who try to sell the Christian faith in the Kantian sense, as a “value system” rather than as the truth, have been failing for generations. With so many competing “value systems: on the market, why should anyone prefer the Christian variation to simpler ones with less theological baggage, and easier ones with less inconvenient moral demands?
--> There is only one honest reason for believing anything: because it is true.

-- Kant believed that Newtonian science was here to stay and that Christianity, to survive, had to find a new place in the new mental landscape sketched by the new science. The only place left was subjectivity.

Consequences of Kant

-- That meant ignoring or interpreting as myth the supernatural and miraculous claims of traditional Christianity.

-- Kant's strategy was essentially the same as that of Rudolf Bultmann, the father of “demythologizing” and the man who may be responsible for more Catholic college students losing their faith than anyone else.

-- Many professors follow his theories of criticism which reduce biblical claims of eyewitness description of miracles to mere myth, “values” and “pious interpretations.”

Problem of Knowing Truth

-- Kant saw both the “dogmatism” of Rationalism and the skepticism of Empiricism as unacceptable, and sought a third way

-- Instead of returning to traditional Realism, Kant invented a wholly
new theory of knowledge, usually called Idealism.
-- He called it his “Copernican revolution in philosophy.” The simplest term for it is Subjectivism. It amounts to redefining truth itself as subjective, not objective.

-- All previous philosophers had assumed that truth was objective.

-- Believed that Christianity is a non-dogmatic religion


G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831)

1. Kant paves the way for Hegel
-- one of Hegel’s seminary mates: “Kant is our Moses who had led us away from God”

Hegel paves the way for Marx

-- History is marked by monumental struggles between theses and their antitheses, which then produce higher syntheses.

-- He calls this process dialectical because it involves the ceaseless give and take of opposing ideas

-- Marx and Engels subsitute competing social and economic forces intead of Hegel’s competing ideas.

-- For Hegel, this dialectical process leads to the rule of the Absolute Spirit

-- For Marx, the process would lead to the Utopian idea of the dictatorship of the proletariat

--> Kierkegaard may have been the first to see how this Marxist scheme subsumes the individual under a tidal wave of historical inevitability

-- Hegel also rejects any notion of a transcendent God; instead a weak God needs the world for his own self-realization; rejects the wrath of God


-- The Left Hegelians were atheists, led by the ex-minister Bruno Bauer and his famous follower, Karl Marx

-- He preferred Christian theology to all other theology.

-- He believed that Christianity was the highest form of religion the world would ever produce.

-- He remained a Lutheran all his life, and he believed that the Lutheran sect of Christianity was superior to the Catholic, Anglican and Puritan.


-- Hegel identifies himself as a rationalist and a moralist.

-- The Gospel about Jesus, he said, is nothing if not a teaching of morals and Ethics.

-- Ethics is most compatible with Reason. Reason is inborn. We inherit it freely. Ethics should be the same. We discover Ethics naturally, by following our sense of Reason.


-- It's a form of Ethical Christianity

-- The stories about Jesus' miracles were originally of secondary importance. For Hegel, the doctrines of resurrection and of the Messiah were merely ploys that Jesus employed to get into the hearts and minds of his listeners, so he could preach his perfect message of morality.

-- The doctrines of miracles, resurrection and Messiah were not only secondary, but were positively superfluous for Hegel. They may have even been negative in value, since they tended to distract people from the primary lesson the Gospel wants us to hear--the lesson of higher morality.


-- The primary message of the Gospel is that the Pharisee definition of morality was in error.

-- Even if someone were to prove that the Gospel is pure literary fiction, this Ethical message would still stand on its own as a courageous, immortal proposition.

-- Liberal, Ethical believers, if they condemn anything, condemn only willful cruelty and destruction, not differences in interpretation. They may view mythological religion as unworthy, but not as damnable.

-- By contrast, authoritarian believers say that Ethical philosophy and crass superstition have the same root--human imperfection. They say that individual interpretation is damnable in itself. They make official belief and official morality into a new Law. Just as the Sadduccees made the temple-cult into the essence of their faith, so has Christendom made an ancient catechism and an external ritual into the essence of its faith.

-- But simple inner faith and inner confidence in one's own heartfelt feelings, these are the road to spiritual awareness. This is the esoteric Gospel teaching, hidden beneath mounds of doctrines of miracles, eschatology and Messianism.

Before Marx:
-- The Emperor would learn to appreciate that Christians placed all desire for social change in God's hands, that they resigned to wait passively for centuries. Perhaps this was not such a bad development after all, he mused.


Schleiermacher (1768-1834)

-- Father of theological liberalism

-- “Higher criticism” - questions the authority of the Bible

-- Move from faith in God to faith in revolutionaries that would (ostensibly) be able to usher in Utopia


Congress of Vienna

-- Napoleon’s empire destroys political systems of many nations of Europe

-- His armies promote growth of militarism and revolutionary nationalism

--> His few supporters claimed he was “a thorn in the side of kings”
--> In truth, he anticipated the totalitarianism of the 20th century
--> To him, the people were a mob to be dispersed “by the whiff of grapeshot”
--> His constitutions gave fewer voting rights to the people than the monarchy
--> He created the first modern police state - and exported it
- Austria, Prussia, and Russia learn from Joseph Fouche, Bonaparte’s
minister of police
- one of Napoleon’s cronies in 1809 takes over Sweden and sets up
a secret police system there
--> Denamrk, for example, dragged into war and impoverished
--> Wordsworth turned against Bonaparte for how he treated the Swiss
--> Everyhwere he went he plundered peasants, churches, town halls, palaces, and treasuries to feed his armies
--> art collections of Germany, Italy, and Spain looted for Louvre
--> Bonaparte stashes 8 million pounds, and also his marshals
--> Strips Swiss treasury to pay for war in Egypt
--> Those who resisted were shot
- Bonaparte massacres thousands at a time
--> Goya paintings: 3800 at Jaffa; 1500 at Toulon (both from 1803)
- One French commander, General Schauenburg, slaughters 500 men, women, and children in Nidwalden
- Brutal massacre of priests, monks, shopkeepers in Spain in 1808 by General Joachim Murat
--> Over 2 million had died as a direct consequence of Bonaparte’s campaigns, and many more through poverty, disease, and undernourishment
--> Countless villages burned in paths of advancing and retreating armies
--> Almost every capital in Europe was occupied:
* Vienna
* Dresden
* Berlin
* Madrid (more than once!)
* Moscow was torched
* Copenhagen was bombarded
--> Napoleon’s armies were not loved
- Stragglers in Spain were stripped and roasted alive
- In Russia serfs buried them up to their necks for the wolves
--> In the end he was sent into exile with a pension of 2 million francs
- This was after he tried to commit suicide
--> He returned in 1815, and loses at Waterloo in Belgium on 18 June 1815
- Napoleon: 72K men, 246 guns
- Wellington: 68K men, 156 guns
- all in less than 3 sq mi
- brutal: Wellington: 15K dead; Napoleon: 25K dead
- some sketches used in first textbook of modern neurology in 1830
--> Bonaparte sent into exile at St. Helena until his death in May 1821

--> Amazingly, the intellectuals at first supported Napoleon. WHY??

-- Once he has defeated, the govts of Europe unite to discuss peace terms and to discuss the future and how to overcome the problems remaining

-- held in Vienna, Austria, from September 1814 to June 1815

- victim of endless wars and occupations
- pauper city: hunger marches and soup kitchens
- paper currency was worthless
- Metternich, as rep. of the Emperor, was the host of the dignitaries and their large entourages (plus 1000s of horses)
- The Austrian secret police were out in force, even keeping tabs on Beethoven
(as Stalin kept tabs on Prokofiev and Shostakovich); all mail was opened

-- Goal is to draw terriotorial boundaries advantageous to themselves and provide long-term stability to Europe

-- France is no longer the dominant player in Europe

--> Are recent French statements an attempt to regain this status?

-- main leaders (victors):

* Czar Alexander I (Russia): 37 yrs old; most powerful man in Europe because he had the most powerful army; dressed like a soldier with a large green hat and balck boots with gold spurs; but when Napoleon was in Moscow he stayed in St. Petersburg until the French were in retreat; In 1802, he imports idea of French secret police as Russian MVD.

* Lord Castlereagh (Great Britain): 44 yrs old; supported union between Ireland and England to get Catholic Emancipation; very devout Protestant; faithful to his wife; sung hymns on Sunday mornings

* Come de Talleyrand (France): 59 yrs old; oldest son who was maimed and therefore disinherited; enters church but leaves ASAP (excommunicated but not released from his vow of celibacy); in charge of French foreign policy; slept with many women; happiest of all with his chef, who he spent an hour a day with, planning meals; many men hated or desprised him, but they used him as a mercenary;

* Prince von Metternich (Austria): 39 yrs old; SERVANT OF THE EMPEROR; no religious status; lielong womanizer; even affair with Napoleon’s youngest sister; loved parties; masked balls; tall; handosme; blue-eyed; blonde; curly haired; partial to Russian ladies, including a general’s daughter who was also courted by Czar Alexander I

-- meeting dominated by Metternich, the “Prince of Displomats” - he and Metternich had a friendship borne of a shared interest in a Europe where peace was preserved through a balancing of interests

-- The group pledged to protect against any further French agression and meet periodically to resolve issues in “Council of Europe”

Results of the Congress of Vienna

MAP: p. 386 in textbook

--> overrding purpose: to deprive France of all territory conquered by Napoleon

1. Prussia was given two-fifths of Saxony, and Russia received most of the grand duchy of Warsaw. Prussia received the remainder of the grand duchy.

2. Ultimately Belgium was given to the Netherlands

3. Prussia received the Rhineland and Westphalia

4. Nice and Savoy went to Sardinia

5. Lombardy and Venetia were given to Austria

6. A loose German Confederation was established primarily for defensive purposes with both Prussia and Austria having primary influence. Austria eventually gained significant influence as an Austrian always chaired the group.

7. Switzerland was neutralized under international guarantee

8. Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden in exchange for Lauenburg

9. Legitimate dynasties were restored in Spain, Portugal and Italy.

10. Britain received control of the Ionian Islands

11. Prussia received control of most of Emden, Osnabruchk Minden and Brunswick

12. Genoa was given to Piedmont where a Bourbon (France) was placed on the throne. France was restored under the rule of Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824)

- in 1791, disguised as a foreign merchant, he had fled France
- the Revolutionaries in France behaded his brother, Louis XVI
- returns after 23 years abroad in April 1814
- Bourbons were restored
- Louis XVIII was old (59 yrs.), fat, lame
- grants men with landed property (100,000K or 0.2% of pop.) to vote
--> a concession to democratic principles
--> design is to “popularaize the monarchy”

13. The Kingdom of Two Sicilies remained under French influence as a Bourbon was returned to the throne

14. Venice became part of Austria as well as the Dalmation province.

15. An Austrian Hapsburg was placed on the throne of Parma, Modena, Lucca and Tuscany

-- They redrew the state borders and redefined the spheres of influence. The geopolitical structure they created and the surface order that resulted endured until 1848.

Latin America

-- Creoles and mestizos rebel after King of Spain, Ferdinand VII, is replaced by Napoleon with his brother, Joseph Bonaparte

-- These peoples claim allegiance to Ferdinand and revolt

-- Mexico gains independence in 1821

-- Under Venezuelan Creole Simon Bolivar (1783-1830), known as “The Liberator”, his army gains victory after victory over the Spanish and independence for: Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela

--> By 1825, all of Latin America is free of European rule

--> exceptions: Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guiana Colonies

-- Many nations in Europe talk of helping Spain to get her colonies back; British balk

-- Monroe Doctrine (1823) - any intervention by European powers in Latin America would be viewed by U.S. as an unfriendly act.


- After 1815, in France, the Bourbon minarchy was restored
- Restrictyions on the press were lessened - career of Victor Hugo and others were launched - Louis XVIII was a fan - bu 1823, got pension of 3,200 francs
- The Bourbons bought newspapers through intermediaries and subsidized them
- Goal was to sure up the image of the monarchy
- Also opera was very popular

- A group known as the Ide[accent facing right]ologues rises to power:
* natural successors to Encyclopedists
* middle class and proud of it
* deplored excesses of Revolution
* repudiated Bonapartism
* suspicious of Bourbons
* supporters of parliamentary gov’t withour being democrats
* supporters of a Constitutional monarchy (reason for England’s success)
* “1688” was their rallying call
* Slogan: ‘Le Roi renge et ne gouverne pas.’
* Was a flavor of historical determinism in the air (following Hegel)

- 16 September 1824
: Louis XVIII dies, and his younger brother, 66-yr-old Charles X, becomes king
- he’s the opposite of his brother:

* good-looking
* slim
* didn’t stuff himself with food or drink four bottles of wine per day
* Charles rode into Paris on horseback
* said he hadn’t had a mistress since 1804
* Excellent manners
* More intelligent than his brother

- Grand coronation where he was annointed with holy oil
- In France, after Charles X had ascended the throne in 1824, he attempted to undo many of the changes that his brother, Louis XVIII, had made before him.
- Charles became fiercely royalistic, arguing for more power and the right to control his subjects, and this angered the French people tremendously, especially those who had played a role in setting the more democratic Louis XVIII on the throne after the defeat of Napoleon.
- From 1815-26 France’s economy had been on the upswing
- By 1827, depression hit.
* textiles hit by downturn internationally
* new cotton mills suffer
* infant coal-mining industry is hurt, too
* wine trade hurt by foreign imports and tariffs (one of France’s biggest employers)
- By 1829-30, many people are hungry
- Families of beggars (mainly women and their children) roamed the countryside
- During winter, crowds of angry women stormed food wareshouses in an attempt to bring down prices

- In 1827, 1/9 of Frenchman were over 59, but they had half the votes
- Avg. life expectancy was only 36
- Nearly 70% of population was under 40
- yet 40 was minimum age for a Deputy
- By 1830, the young feel blocked
- Artists and writers are young:
* Chopin, 20
* Hugo: 28
* Balzac: 31

Revolutions of the 1830s

- Between 23 June and July 3, in elections, the government gets 143 seats, but liberal oppositions swells from 221 to 274 seats
- King Charles X invokes Article 14 of Charter, which gives king emergency powers
* dissolves parliament
* calls fresh elections
* suspended freedom of the press
* reduced the size of the electorate (down to 258 deputies) - nobility and gentry

--> Charles misses chance to broaden the franchise

- The people became outraged
- 800K people in Paris and only 12,000 troops
- Meanwhile, Charles is outside the city
- The next day, July 27, the city of Paris, under the leadership of liberal advocates such as François Guizot, Louis Adolphe Thiers, and the aging Marquis de Lafayette, rose up against Charles.
--> 1800 insurgents killed and 4500 wounded
- On July 30, Charles X abdicated at last, though on condition that the throne pass to his grandson, "the miracle child."
- But the parliament, meeting on August 7, declared the throne vacant and on August 9 proclaimed Louis-Philippe "king of the French by the grace of God and the will of the nation."
- He was the 'citizen-king' and a constitutional monarchy was set up

* age of deputy lowered from 40 to 30
* age of elector down to 25
* electorate expanded from 90K to 166K
- UK: 618K electorate at this time (Great Reform Bill in 1828)

- His reign, known as the July Monarchy, lasted until the revolution of February 1848.
- England was pleasantly surprised by Charles’ overthrow, as were Monroe and Jackson in US

Importance of Revolution of 1830 for Workers

- In the eyes of the upperclass, the working class was dependent on them for political leadership.
- However their action in the Revolution of 1830 displayed that they had well-formulated political ideas of their own.
- In the revolution of 1830, the workers fought for their own liberty: the freedom to work in the trade in which they were trained, and for better working and living conditions.

- The Revolution of 1830 was very important for the working class revolutionaries
- It allowed the workers to find their voice in society and politics.
- It acted as an important catalyst for the development of workers' demands and organizations
- After the revolution the workers became a permanent and increasingly organized force in Paris

Political Ideologies of the Workers in 1830

- The workers ideologies actually paralled those of their sans-culottes fathers in 1789:

* They hated priests, nobles, and the royalists
* They loved the nation, the army, and the legend of napolean :
* In fact many fighting in 1830 were veterans from the Napolean wars

- The workers struck out at the Bourbons, the nobles, the priests, just as their precursors had, but the workers in 1830 had another grievance: the forces of the industrialization that threatened to deprive them of their dignity and status.

Political Action After The Revolution

- The revolution gave the working class confidence to ask for what they believed they had won at the barricades.
- Most demands concerned working conditions, which effected the lower classes most:

* Wanted government to protect their jobs and their standard of living
* Set fixed wages and hours
* Shorter workday - 10 hr. day
* Wanted the government to enforce contracts between employer and employee
* Demanded a cure of all economic ills, which meant higher pay
* Insisted that the state create more jobs and employers keep their workshops open
* Wanted the end to indirect taxes, especially those on wine
* Lower maximum price on bread
* The workers disliked foreign workers, and not just from other countries, but also from other provinces and counties, and wanted them removed from their provinces.

Upper class Reaction to Workers' Political Action

- The middle class was shocked that the working class would make demands on the political leaders and expect change.
- The conflicting goals of the artisan workers and the new "bourgeois monarchy" resulted in confusion, because neither group understood or cared where the other was coming from.
- In reality, the working class crowd was uninvolved in the quarrel between the government and its elite antagonists:

"thousands of Paris workingmen during the depression years of the late 1820s and early 1830s had specific grievances - lack of work, low wages, the high price of bread - that had nothing to do with the dispute . . . between the monarchy and the counter-elite" (Pinkney ).

- The upper classes failed to realize that the working class had an agenda all of their own, and underestimated the power that the lower class had politically. For the working class, their work was their priority.
- They fought for their own liberty: the freedom to work at your trained specialty.
- They fought for the dignity of their class and their men.

European Impact

- it inspired students and young intellectuals in Central Europe to call for changes in their countries.
- A few countries were able to obtain independence: Belgium from the Netherlands (1831) and Greece from the Ottoman empire (1832).
- But uprisings in Italy and Germany failed, and a Polish revolt against the Russian
czar was brutally crushed.
- Delacroix's famous painting Liberty Leading the People (1830) was inspired by the
July Revolution in France
- Chopin left Poland for Paris as a result of the unsuccessful Polish attempt at independence.

Revolutions of 1848

- The overthrow of the constitutional monarchy in February 1848 still seems, in retrospect, a puzzling event.
- The revolution has been called a result without a cause; more properly, it might be called a result out of proportion to its cause.
- Since 1840 the regime had settled into a kind of torpid stability; but it had provided the nation with peace abroad and relative prosperity at home.
- Louis-Philippe and his ministers had prided themselves on their moderation, their respect for the ideal of cautious balance embodied in the concept of juste-milieu.
- France seemed to be arriving at last at a working compromise that blended traditional ways with the reforms of the Revolutionary era.

Signs of Discontent

- The republicans had never forgiven Louis-Philippe for "confiscating" their revolution in 1830.
- The urban workers, moved by their misery and by the powerful social myths engendered by the Great Revolution, remained unreconciled.

Rise of Socialism

- For a decade or more they had been increasingly drawn toward socialism in its various utopian forms.
- An unprecedented flowering of socialist thought marked the years 1840–48 in France: this was the generation of Barthélemy-Prosper Enfantin, Charles Fourier, Auguste Blanqui, Louis Blanc, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Étienne Cabet, and many others.
- Most of these system builders preached persuasion rather than violence, but they stimulated the hopes of the common man for an imminent transformation of society.
- Within the bourgeoisie as well, there was strong and vocal pressure for change in the form of a broadening of the political elite.
- Bills to extend the suffrage (and the right to hold office) to the middle bourgeoisie were repeatedly introduced in parliament but were stubbornly opposed by Guizot.
- Even the National Guard, that honour society of the lesser bourgeoisie, became infected with this mood of dissatisfaction.

Other Factors

- In 1846 a crop failure quickly developed into a full-scale economic crisis: food became scarce and expensive; many businesses went bankrupt; unemployment rose.
- Within the governing elite itself there were signs of a moral crisis: scandals that implicated some high officials of the regime and growing dissension among the Notables.
- Along with this went a serious alienation of many intellectuals. Novelists such as Victor Hugo, George Sand, and Eugène Sue glorified the common man; the caricaturist Honoré Daumier exposed the foibles of the nation's leaders; and historians such as Jules Michelet and Alphonse de Lamartine wrote with romantic passion about the heroic episodes of the Great Revolution.

Opposition Grows

- Beginning in 1847, the leaders of the opposition set out to take advantage of this restless mood and to force the regime to grant liberal reforms.
- Since public political meetings were illegal, they undertook a series of political "banquets" to mobilize the forces of discontent.
- This campaign was to be climaxed by a mammoth banquet in Paris on Feb. 22, 1848.
- But the government, fearing violence, ordered the affair canceled.
- On the 22nd, crowds of protesting students and workers gathered in the streets and began to clash with the police.
- The king and Guizot expected no serious trouble: the weather was bad, and a large army garrison was available in case of need.
- But the disorders continued to spread, and the loyalty of the National Guard began to seem dubious.
- Toward the end of two days of rioting, Louis-Philippe faced a painful choice: to unleash the army (which would mean a bloodbath) or to appease the demonstrators.
- Reluctantly, he chose the second course and announced that he would replace the hated Guizot as his chief minister.
- But the concession came too late. That evening, an army unit guarding Guizot's official residence clashed with a mob of demonstrators, some 40 of whom died in the fusillade.
- By the morning of February 24, the angry crowd was threatening the royal palace.
- Louis-Philippe, confronted by the prospect of civil war, hesitated and then retreated once more; he announced his abdication in favour of his nine-year-old grandson and fled to England.
- This was among more than 50 revolutions that broke out across Europe
- Universal manhood suffrage proclaimed
- BUT in June 1848, another insurrection, June Days, broke out among common workers
- People choose Napoleon’s nephew, Napoleon III, as their leader
- elected president by overwhelming majority
- 1851: dissolves the legislature
- 1852: declares Second Empire and proclaims himself Emperor Napoleon III
- His reign lasts until 1870, when he was overthrown (and Third Republic delcared)

Unification of Italy

Unified under Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Cavour, and Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italy was unified in 1861 and broken from Austrian rule. Rome becomes capital in 1871.

Unification of Germany

United Germany in 1871. Plan of Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of Prussia. Franco-Prussian War in 1870-1871 to stir German nationalism.

--> Germany and Italy play roles in WWI


Karl Marx

- The “Manifesto” was one of the key moments in history. Published in 1848, “the year of revolutions' throughout Europe, it is, like the Bible, essentially a philosophy of history, past and future.

- All past history is reduced to class struggle between oppressor and oppressed, master and slave, whether king vs. people, priest vs. parishioner, guild- master vs. apprentice, or even husband vs. wife and parent vs. child.

- Love is totally denied or ignored; competition and exploitation are the universal rule.

- Now, however, this can change, according to Marx, because now, for the first time in history, we have not many classes but only two — the bourgeoisie (the “haves,”
owners of the means of production) and the proletariat (the “have-nots,” non-owners of the means of production).

- The latter must sell themselves and their labor to the owners until the communist revolution, which will “eliminate” (euphemism for “murder”) the bourgeoisie and thus
abolish classes and class conflict forever, establishing a millennium of peace and equality.

- After being utterly cynical about the past, Marx becomes utterly naive about the future.

- Yet Marxism retains all the major structural and emotional factors of biblical religion in a secularized form.

- Marx, like Moses, is the prophet who leads the new Chosen People, the proletariat, out of the slavery of capitalism into the Promised Land of communism across the Red Sea of bloody worldwide revolution and through the wilderness of temporary, dedicated suffering for the party, the new priesthood.

- The revolution is the new “Day of Yahweh,” the Day of Judgment; party spokesmen are the new prophets; and political purges within the party to maintain ideological
purity are the new divine judgments on the waywardness of the Chosen and their leaders.

- The messianic tone of communism makes it structurally and emotionally more like a religion than any other political system except fascism.

- Marx inherited seven radical ideas from Hegel:

1. Monism: the idea that everything is one and that common sense's distinction between matter and spirit is illusory. For Hegel, matter was only a form of spirit; for Marx, spirit was only a form of matter.

2. Pantheism: the notion that the distinction between Creator and creature, the distinctively Jewish idea, is false. For Hegel, the world is made into an aspect of God
(Hegel was a pantheist); for Marx, God is reduced to the world (Marx was an atheist).

3. Historicism: the idea that everything changes, even truth; that there is nothing above history to judge it; and that therefore what is true in one era becomes false in another, or vice versa. In other words, Time is God.

4. Dialectic: the idea that history moves only by conflicts between opposing forces, a “thesis” vs. an “antithesis” evolving a “higher synthesis.” This applies to classes,
nations, institutions and ideas. The dialectic waltz plays on in history's ballroom until the kingdom of God finally comes — which Hegel virtually identified with the
Prussian state. Marx internationalized it to the worldwide communist state.

5. Necessitarianism, or fatalism: the idea that the dialectic and its outcome are inevitable and necessary, not free. Marxism is a sort of Calvinistic predestination without a divine Predestinator.

6. Statism: the idea that since there is no eternal, trans-historical truth or law, the state is supreme and uncriticizable. Marx again internationalized Hegel's nationalism

7. Militarism: the idea that since there is no universal natural or eternal law above states to judge and resolve differences between them, war is inevitable and
necessary as long as there are states.

- For rationalism is a faith, not a proof.

- The faith that human reason can know everything that is real cannot be proved by human reason; and the belief that everything that is real can be proved by the scientific method cannot itself be proved by the scientific method.

- economic reductionism: the reduction of all issues to economic issues. If
Marx were reading this analysis now, he would say that the real cause of these ideas of mine was not my mind's power to know the truth, but the capitalistic economic
structures of the society that “produced” me.

- Marx believed that within man thought was totally determined by matter; that man was totally determined by society; and that society was totally determined by economics. This stands on its head the traditional view that mind rules body, man rules his societies, and society rules its economics.

- Finally, Marx adopted the idea of the collective ownership of property and the means of producing it from previous “utopian socialist” thinkers. Marx says, “The theory
of communism may be summed up in the single phrase: abolition of private property.”

- The deepest appeal of communism, especially in Third World countries, has been not the will to communalism but “the will to power,” as Nietzsche called it. Nietzsche
saw more deeply into the heart of communism than Marx did.

- The simplest refutation of Marxism is that its materialism simply contradicts itself. If ideas are nothing but products of material and economic forces, like cars or shoes,
then communist ideas are only that too. If all our ideas are determined not by insight into truth but by the necessary movements of matter if we just can't help the way
our tongues happen to wag — then the thoughts of Marx are no more true than the thoughts of Moses. To attack the grounds of thought is to attack one's own attack.

- But Marx sees this, and admits it. He reinterprets words as weapons, not as truths. The functions of the words of the “Manifesto” (and, ultimately, even of the much
longer, more pseudo-scientific “Capital”) is not to prove what is true but to encourage the revolution. “Philosophers have only interpreted the world; the thing to do is to
change it.” Marx is basically a pragmatist.



“I want to know you -- even to serve you.”

--> Hint: Shaquille O’Neal’s favorite thinker

-- Nietzsche, the self-proclaimed “Anti-Christ”

-- Son of Lutheran pastor

-- He argued for atheism as follows: “I will now disprove the existence of all gods. If there were gods, how could I bear not to be a god? Consequently, there are no gods.”

-- He scorned reason as well as faith, and appealed to passion, rhetoric and even deliberate hatred rather than reason.

-- He saw love as “the greatest danger” and morality as mankind's worst weakness. He died insane, in an asylum, of syphilis — signing his last letters “the Crucified One.”

-- He was adored by the Nazis as their semi-official philosopher.

-- He shows to modern Western civilization its own dark heart and future.

-- Once “God is dead,” so is man, morality, love, freedom, hope, democracy, the soul and ultimately, sanity. No one shows this more vividly than Nietzsche. He may have been responsible (quite unintentionally) for many conversions.

-- He is as centered on Christ as Augustine was, only he centered on Christ as his enemy.

-- His philosophy was to preferr “whatever is life-enhancing” to truth. “Why not live a
lie?” he asks.

-- Geneology of Morals: Claims that morality was an invention of the weak (especially the Jews, and then the Christians) to weaken the strong. The sheep convinced the wolf to act like a sheep. This is unnatural, argues Nietzsche, and seeing morality's unnatural origin in resentment at inferiority will free us from its power over us.

-- Beyond Good and Evil: Nietzsche's alternative morality, or “new morality.”

-- “Master morality” is totally different from “slave morality,” he says. Whatever a master commands becomes good from the mere fact that the master commands it.
-- The weak sheep have a morality of obedience and conformity. Masters have a natural right to do whatever they please, for since there is no God, everything is permissible.

-- The Twilight of the Idols explores the consequences of “the death of God.” (Of course God never really lives, but faith in Him did. Now that is dead, says Nietzsche.)

-- With God dies all objective truths (for there is no mind over ours) and objective values, laws and morality (for there is no will over ours). Soul, free will, immortality, reason, order, love — all these are “idols,” little gods that are dying now that the Big God has died.

-- What will replace God? The same being who will replace man; the Superman. Nietzsche's masterpiece, Thus Spake Zarathustra, celebrates this new god. Its essential message is the condemnation of present-day man as a weakling and the announcement of the next species, the Superman, who lives by “master
morality” instead of “slave morality.” God is dead, long live the new god!

-- But in The Eternal Return Nietzsche discovers that all gods die, even the Superman.

--> He believed that all history necessarily moved in a cycle, endlessly repeating all past events — “There is nothing new under the Sun.” Nietzsche deduced this disappearing conclusion from the two premises of (1) a finite amount of matter and (2) an infinite amount of time (since there is no creator and no creation); thus every possible combination of elementary particles, every possible world, occur an infinite
number of times, given infinite time.
--> All, even the Superman, will return again to dust, and evolve worms, apes, man and Superman again and again.
--> The supreme virtue was the will's courage to affirm this meaningless life, beyond reason, for no reason.

-- In Nietzsche's last work, The Will to Power, the lack of an end or goal appears as demonic, and mirrors the demonic character of the modern mind.
-- Without a God, a heaven, truth, or an absolute Goodness to aim at, the meaning of life becomes simply “the will to power.”
-- Power becomes its own end, not a means.
-- “Just will,” is Nietzsche's advice. It does not matter what you will or why.

-- In words of Peter Kreeft from Boston College, “No one in history, except possibly the
Marquis de Sade, has ever so clearly, candidly and consistently formulated the complete alternative to Christianity.”


To provide a particularly notorious example, in The Social Contract (1762), Rousseau worked out the notion of the General Will, which, simply stated, referred to the will of the people, reflected through the rational needs of the body politic.
- The General Will is not specifically the mere representation of a majority opinion.
- If people should unwisely oppose themselves to the General Will, it might become necessary to force them to be free. Here are Rousseau's own words:

...whoever refuses to obey the general will shall be constrained to do so by the whole body; which means nothing else than that he shall be forced to be free; for such is the condition which, uniting every Citizen to his Homeland, guarantees him from all personal dependence, a condition that ensures the control and working of the political machine, and alone renders legitimate civil engagements, which, without it, would be absurd and tyrannical, and subject to the most enormous abuse.

In a letter to N.L. Ozmidov, in 1878, Dostoyevsky writes:

Now assume there is no God or immortality of the soul. Now tell me, why should I live righteously and do good deeds if I am to die entirely on earth?...And if that is so, why shouldn't I (as long as I can rely on my cleverness and agility to avoid being caught by the law) cut another man's throat , rob, and steal...


- Curse of the modern age

Flight from:

* Invisible to visible
* Transcendent towards the immanent
* Spiritual toward the material

- Once these three things are rejected, they are denied existence


- Nihilism in culture
- What is nihilism?

* no higher or lower aspirations
* higher aspirations lose their grip on the human soul
* no fundamental meaning or ultimate meaning to life
* shrunken aspirations
* evil ceases to be terrifying and becomes merely banal
* No ultimate preference for good over evil